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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (24):
0

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis ( Allergic alveolitis) is caused by exposure to?

Organic dust, esp. Thermophilic bacteria
Most common - " Farmer's lung"

1

Caplan's syndrome (rheumatoid pneumoconiosis) is associated with ?

Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

2

Metal fume fever is due to?

Exposure to oxides of heavy metals, esp. Zinc

3

The most reliable diagnostic tool for monitoring respiratory function in workers exposed to respiratory hazards?

Spirometry (FEV1, FVC)

4

Cotton dust endotoxin exposure causes what disease?

Byssinosis

5

Spirometric testing

Volume recording:
FVC
- Forced Vital Capacity
- Total volume of air expelled in spirometer if maneuver
FEV-1
- Forced Expiratory Volume in 1- second
- FEV-1 = volume of air expelled in the first second of expiration

6

FEV-1/FVC ratio:

FEV-1/FVC ratio
= volume expelled in the first second to the total volume

7

Spirometric indices

1. Normal FEV-1 & FVC
usually both = or > 80% of predicted value

2. Normal FEV-1/FVC ratio
= or > 70% of predicted

8

Spirometer indices in Obstructive lung diseases

1. FVC: normal
2. FEV-1: Low (<70%)
3. FEV-1/FVC: Low

9

Spirometric indices in Restrictive lung disease

1. FVC: Low (70%)
2. FEV-1: Low(70%)
3. FEV-1/FVC: normal

10

Pneumoconiosis

Silicosis
Asbestosis
Coal worker's pneumoconiosis
Other

11

Pneumoconiosis

Dusty lungs after 10-20 years exposure of dust (silica, coal, or asbestos), caused permanent parenchymal fibrotic change

12

Silicosis is Sensitive to

TB
Anaerobic infection

(Silicosis deposited in the upper lung, decreased the O2 in the upper lung)

13

X-ray of silicosis

1. Upper lung pathology - small round opaque change
2. "Egg shell" nodule -Hila infiltration

14

Inhalation injury

Irritant gases and fumes
Solubility determines upper or lower airway symptoms

15

Inhalation injury
- Ammonia, sulfur dioxide

High water solubility
Upper airway deposit

16

Inhalation injury
- chloride

moderate water solubility
Lower airway

17

Inhalation injury
- phosgene, nitrogen oxide

low water solubility
Terminal airway

18

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Eg. Farmer's lung
Bagassosis
Humidifier lung
Pigeon breeder's lung
Maple bark-stripper's lung

19

RADS - Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome

An irritant asthma
Due to irritating agent, not an immunologic sensitizer
Usually with high or massive exposure to irritating agent

20

Calcification of the diaphragm

Is so rare that it's finding is almost pathognomic for asbestosis

21

Inhalation of anthracite (hard coal) dust is more dangerous than inhalation of bituminous (soft coal) dust

Because
1. The smaller particle size causes more extensive scar formation
2. Anthracite deposits are associated with higher-level of silica dust.

22

Coal worker pneumoconiosis, or "black lung" develops

- In 12% of all miners
- And up to 50% of anthracite miners with more than 20 years of duty exposure

23

Which of the following occupational causes of interstitial lung disease is associated with higher risk of tuberculosis?
A. Coal workers pneumoconiosis
B. Berylliosis
C. Silicosis
D. Asbestos
E. Byssinosis

C. Silicosis