Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (47)
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external defenses

skin, mucous membrane, and enzyme secetions

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internal defenses

phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation, and natural killer cells

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neutrophil

phagocyte; 60-70% of leukocytes; life span few days; home to infected tissue

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macrophage

develop from monocytes; some reside in specific lymphatic tissue

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eosinophil

low phagocyte activity; defense against multicellular parasites with enzymes

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dendritic cell

phagocytic, but primary role is stimulating acquired immunity

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interferon alpha + beta

provide innate defense against viral infections

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complement system

30 serum proteins that are antimicrobial proteins

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mast cells

releases histamine, which triggers dilation and increased permeability of nearby capillaries

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chemokine

small proteins of cytokine family that attract phagocytic cells

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natural killer cells

innate defense; attack virus infected cells and cancer cells causing apoptosis

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hemocytes

insect white blood cells found in hemolymph

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cytokines

phagocytes secrete these proteins that help activate lymphocytes

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lymphocytes

B or T cells with about 100,000 identical antigen receptors on the surface

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Immunoglobulins

structurally similar to B cell receptors, but lack a transmembrane domain

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B cell receptors

noncovalent bonds with intact antigens

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T cell receptors

one a and b chain; recognizes small fragments of antigens that are bound to MHC molecules

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class I mhc

found on almost all nucleated cells; antigen display is recognized by cytotoxic T cells

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class II mhc

made on antigen presenting cells dendritic cells, macrophages, and b cells; display is recognized by helper T cells

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thymus

lymphocytes that migrate from bone marrow to here develop into T cells

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lymphocyte activation

binding of antigen activates lymphocyte and stimulates division into clones

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humoral immune response

plasma and memory b cells; secretion of antibodies

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cell mediated immune response

activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic t cells

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CD4

present on helper T cells; binds to the class II MHC molecule

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dendritic cell-T cell

effective in presenting antigens to naive helper T cells

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macrophage - T cell

initiate a secondary immune response by presenting antigens to memory helper T cells

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B cell - T cell

primarily present antigens to helper T cells during humoral response

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CD8

present on cytotoxic T cells; binds to the class I MHC molecule

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helper T cell activation

binds to antigen-MHC II complex with TCR and secretes cytokines for B cells and cytotoxic T cells; produces helper T clones

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cytotoxic T cell activation

with the help of MHC I and cytokines perforin and granzymes are released causing apoptosis

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plasma B cells

after activation these effector cells secrete antibodies to the antigens that this B cell is specific for

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B cell internalization

dendritic cell internalizes peptide fragments from variety of antigens; presents only antigen to which it specifically binds

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T dependent antigen

induce antibody production only with assistance from helper T cells

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T independent antigens

weaker response with bacteria capsules and flagella; does not generate memory B cells

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memory B cells

activated effector B cells with antibodies on the membrane

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polyclonal antibody

products of many different clones of B cells, each specific for a different epitope

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monoclonal antibody

identical and specific for the same epitope on an antigen

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viral neutralization

antibodies bind to surface of virus and blocks host binding as well as enhancing phagocytosis

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opsonization

binds to pathogenic bacterium and enhances macrophage phagocytosis

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antigen precipitation

antibodies cross link soluble antigen molecules and aggregates

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agglutination

clumps bacteria or virus for phagocytosis; commonly performed by IgM

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antibody-complement proteins

complement proteins bind to antigen-antibody complex and causes cell lysis

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IgM

pentamer; first Ig class produced after initial antigen exposure; agglutination

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IgG

confers passive immunity on fetus; most abundant Ig in blood

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IgA

dimer; present in secretions; confers passive immunity in milk; mucous membrane defense

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IgE

triggers release of histamine from mast cells and basophils that cause allergic reaction

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IgD

present on surface of naive B cells; antigen receptors in antigen stimulated proliferation of B cells