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Flashcards in Circulation Deck (38)
1

gastrovascular cavity

cnidarians + flatworms; serves both in digestion and in distribution of substances throughout the body

2

open circulatory system

insects+arthropods+most molluscs; no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid

3

hemolymph

the blood and interstitial fluid of an open circulatory system

4

insect heart

pumps hemolymph into sinuses through elongated tube located dorsally

5

ostia

when heart relaxes the hemolymph is drawn into circulatory system through these holes

6

open circulatory advantage

lower hydrostatic pressure makes them expend less energy

7

fish cardiovascular

two chambered heart and a single circuit of blood flow

8

amphibian cardiovascular

three chambered heart and two circuits of blood with mixing in single ventricle

9

amphibian circuits

pulmocutaneous-lung and skin; systemic-body

10

reptiles except birds

three chambered heart with a septum that paritially divides the single ventricle

11

reptiles+mammals circuit

pulmonary and system circuit and capillaries

12

mammals+bird cardiovascular

4 chambered heart with 2 ventricles and 2 aortas

13

double circulation

the blood is pumped a second time after it loses pressure in the lungs

14

pulmonary artery

right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through pulmonary arteries

15

aorta

left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood through systemic circuit

16

systole

contraction phase of the cardiac cycle where blood is pushed out

17

diastole

relaxation phase of cardiac cycle where ventricles fill with blood

18

atrioventricular valve

between atrium and ventricle

19

semilunar valves

located at the two exits of the ventricles

20

sinoatrial node

pacemaker sets rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract

21

myogenic heart

vertebrate hearts that sets its own rate compared to outside nerves in neurogenic heart

22

electrocardiogram

EKG; currents carried by electrodes shows heartbeat

23

endothelium

lines the lumen of all blood vessels; single layer of flattened cells that minimizes resistance to blood flow

24

lymphatic system

fluid leaks out of cardiovascular and into lymph vessels

25

erythrocytes

lack nuclei and mitochondria; generate ATP from anaerobic metabolism

26

leukoctyes

monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes

27

blood clots

fibrinogen is inactive form and fibrin is the active form

28

coelom

hollow core of each gill that is part of outer layer of sea star

29

parapodia

serve as gills for marine worms called polychaetes

30

crustacean gills

exoskeleton covers the gills

31

countercurernt exchange

as blood moves through gill capillaryit encounters water with higher O2 concentration

32

spiracles

air enters the tracheae through these openings insects body surface and passes into smaller tubes called tracheoles

33

negative pressure breathing

mammals have this but amphibians have positive pressure breathing

34

air sacs

in birds there are eight or nine air sacs and one way channels called parabronchi

35

hemocyanin

respiratory pigment in arthropods has copper as its oxygen binder coloring the blood blue

36

hemoglobin

respiratory pigment of nearly all vertebrates and some invertebrates found in erythrocytes

37

Bohr shift

a drop in pH from active tissue lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for O2 for cellular respiration

38

myoglobin

has a higher affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin