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Flashcards in Plant diversity Deck (56)
1

alternation of generations

distinguished by the fact that there are both multicellular haploid and multicellular diploid in plant life cycle

2

plant spores

haploid reproductive cells that have the potential to grow into multicellular haploid gametophytes by mitosis

3

gametangia

early land plants have archegonia-female + antheridia-male that are organs that produce gametes

4

embryophytes

land plants have multicellular, dependent embryo developed from zygotes

5

bryophytes

nonvascular plants; liverworts, hornworsts, mosses

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lycophytes

seedless vascular plants; club mosses, quillworts

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pterophytes

seedless vascular plants; ferns, horsetails

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seed

embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat

9

gymnosperm

seed plant; conifers, seeds are not enclosed in chambers

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angiosperm

flowering plants; develop inside chambers called ovaries, which originate within flowers and mature into fruits

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extant lineage

surviving members in addition to extinct members

12

protonema

germinating moss spores produce a mass of green branched, one cell thick filaments

13

gametophore

produced by protonema; gamete producing structure with an apical meristem

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rhizoids

long, tubular single cells that anchor the gametophytes

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sporophyte

consists primarily of foot, seta, and sporangium

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foot

embedded in the archegonium; absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte

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seta

also called stalk; conducts the nutrients to the sporangium

18

capsule

also called sporangium; uses the nutrients to produce spores by meiosis

19

calyptra

a protective cap of gametophyte tissue on the immature capsule only

20

peristome

for most moss species; upper art of the capsule features a ring of toothlike structures

21

stomata

in hornwort, moss, and vascular plants; in sporophytes; specialized spores allow exchange of air for photosynthesis

22

xylem

conducts most of the water an minerals through vascular plants

23

tracheids

tube shaped cells that are dead, with only walls remaining; cell wall is strengthened by lignin

24

phloem

living sugar conducting sieve cells

25

roots

lignified vascular tissue below the ground

26

microphylls

oldest vascular plants lycophyets have these small spine shaped leaves with a single vein

27

megaphylls

vascular plants of most vascular plants; leaves with a highly branched vascular system

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sporophylls

modified leaves that bear sporangia; fern-sori; gymnosperms-cones

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homosporous

one type of sporophyll produces one type of spore and a bisexual gametophyte

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heterosporous

two types of sporophylls; megasporangium and microsporangium

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megasporangium

produced megaspores in megasporophylls; megaspores develop into female gametophytes

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microsporangium

produce microspores in microsporophylls; microspore develop into male gametophyte

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fern diversity

most have megaphylls; mostly homosporous; stalked sporangia

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epiphytes

many lycophytes; plants that use other plants as a substrate but are not parasites

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sporophyte dependent

mosses and other bryophytes; gametophyte dominant life cycle of mosses

36

gametophyte independent

large sporophyte and small gametophyte; ferns and some seedless vascular plants

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gametophyte dependent

seed plants the gametophyte is dependent on the sporophyte; gymnosperms and angiosperm

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integuments

layers of tissue that envelop and protect megasporangium; gymno-1, angio-2

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ovule

the whole structure of megasporangium, megaspore, and integuments

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gymnosperm seeds

naked seeds that are not enclosed by ovaries; usually form cones-strobili

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ovulate cone

two ovules containing female megasporangium in each cone scale

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pollen cone

contains many male microsporangia

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gymnosperm megasporocyte

2n diploid egg before undergoing meiosis and producing megaspore

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gymnosperm fertilization

sporophyte from germinating pollen grain and egg nucleus

45

sepals

usually green and enclose the flower at the base

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petals

brightly colored in most flowers and aid in attracting pollinators; except wind pollinated

47

stamens

microsporophylls produce microspores-male gametophytes; consists of stalk called filament and pollen sac called anther

48

carpel

megasporophylls produce female gametophytes; sticky stigma at tip receives pollen, syle is tube leading to base; ovary contains one or more ovules

49

pistil

single carpel or a group of fused carpels

50

pericarp

formed from the wall of ovary; thickened wall of the fruit

51

dry fruit

beans, nuts, and grains such as wheat, rice and grasses

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double fertilization

unique to angiosperms; one sperm fertilizes the egg, forming diploid zygote; other sperm fuses with the two nuclei in female gametophyte

53

cotyledon

one or two seed leaves that are on the developing zygote

54

endosperm

tissue rich in starch and other food reserves; from sperm fusing with 2 nuclei in gametophyte

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monocots

one cotyledon; parallel veins, scattered vascular tissue; fibrous roots; one pollen grain opening; flowers in multiples of 3

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dicots

2 cotyledons; netlike veins; ring vascular tissue; main taproot; 3 pollen grain opening; 4 or 5 multiples for flowers