respiration Flashcards Preview

Biology > respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in respiration Deck (46)
1

oxidation

the loss of electrons from one substance to another

2

reducing agent

substance that is the electron donor

3

oxidizing agent

substance that is the electron acceptor; higher electronegativity

4

glycolysis

occurs in cytosol; breaks glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate

5

citric acid cycle

within mitochondrial matrix; oxidizes a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide

6

oxidative phosphorylation

inner membrane of mitochondria; constituted by electron transport + chemiosmosis

7

substrate level phosphorylation

happens in citric acid + glycolysis; enzyme transfers a phosphate group from substrate to ADP

8

glycolysis production

1 glucose->2 pyruvate; 2 ATP used, 4 ATP produced->2 ATP final

9

pyruvate

inside mitochondria it is converted into acetyl CoA; CO2 is released

10

acetyl CoA

3 NADH; FAD; ATP substrate level in Krebs

11

ubiquinone

hydrophic molecule that is a mobile electron carrier in the ETC

12

cyochromes

makes up most of the electron carriers in the ETC before oxygen

13

FADH2

adds its electrons to complex 2 in the ETC

14

ATP synthase

protein complex in the inner membrane of mitochondria that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate

15

chemiosmosis

energy stored in the form of hydrogen ion gradient drives this ATP synthesis process

16

proton gradient

protons are pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix and into the intermembrane space; H+ flows down the gradient

17

ATP-NADH

1 NADH generates 3 ATP

18

ATP production

about 32 ATP are produced during oxydative phosphorylation

19

alcohol fermentation

acetaldehyde reduced to ethanol; replenishes NAD+

20

lactic acid fermentation

pyruvate is reduced to lactate; replenishes NAD+

21

deamination

use of amino acids for food; amino acids much remove their amino groups

22

beta oxidation

breaks fatty acids down to 2 carbon fragments; enter TCA as acetyl CoA

23

phosphofructokinase

ATP and AMP regulate this enzyme, which controls production of energy

24

chlorophyll

green pigment located within chloroplast where light energy is absorbed

25

mesophyll

about 30-40 chloroplast organelles are found mainly in this cell in the leaf

26

thylakoids

thylakoid sacs within stroma stacked in grana columns; chlorophyll resides within

27

light reactions

light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to an acceptor called NADP+

28

light reaction produce

generates ATP during photophosphorlyation; NADPH; oxygen as byproduct

29

calvin cycle

incorporation of CO2 from air into organic molecules: carbon fixation

30

photosynthetic pigments

chlorophyll A-primary electron excitation; chlorophyll b-also photosynthetic; carotenoids-dissipate excess light energy

31

photosystem

composed of a reaction center surrounded by a number of light harvesting complexes

32

light harvesting complexes

pigment molecules chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids bound to molecular proteins

33

reaction center

protein complex in photosystem that includes two special chlorophyll a molecules and primary electron acceptor

34

primary electron acceptor

enables capture of excited electron to higher energy level in redox reaction

35

photosystem 2

first of the photosytems known as P680; interacts with light

36

photosystem 1

electrons are passed down ETC from PS2; second of the photosystems known as P700

37

cyclic electron flow

when ATP is low; electrons recycle in PS1 and no NADPH is produced

38

thylakoid membrane

photosystems and ETC with H+ leaving thylakoid space and passing down gradient to stroma with ATP synthase

39

carbon fixation

incorporates O2 by attaching ribulose bisphosphate catalyzed by rubisco

40

rubisco

most abundant protein in chloroplasts and potentially on earth

41

Calvin cycle production

3 CO2 produces one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate; consumes 9 ATP, 6 NADPH

42

C3 plants

First product of carbon fixation is the 3 carbon compound 3-phosphoglycerate

43

C4 plants

Carbon fixation that forms a four carbon compound as first product

44

Oxaloacetate

Much higher affinity for CO2 than rubisco and none for O2. Can fix carbon when rubisco cannot in hot dry climates

45

C4 separation

Carbon fixation occurs in mesophyll but Calvin cycle occurs in bundle sheath cells

46

CAM plants

Open their stomata during the night and close during the day; carbon fixation at night, Calvin cycle during the day; both mesophyll