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Biology > Excretion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Excretion Deck (42)
1

excretion purpose

how animals get rid of the nitrogen containing waste products of metabolism

2

isoosmotic

two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane have the same osmolarity and no net movement

3

hyperosmotic

with two solutions, the one with the greater concentration of solutes

4

hypoosmotic

with two solutions, the one that is more dilute or has a lower concentration of solutes

5

stenohaline

most animals cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osolarity

6

euryhaline

animals that can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity such as salmon and tilapia

7

marine fish osmolarity

marine fishes constantly lose water by osmosis and gain salt by diffusion

8

marine fish h20 balance

after drinking seawater chloride ions are actively transported out through the gills and kidneys do the rest

9

anhydrobiosis

invertebrate animals such as tardigrades survive for up to 10 years in dehydrated state

10

transport epithelia

layer or layers of specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movements

11

albatross transport epithelia

nasal salt glands that drip salt solution saltier than seawater

12

freshwater fish transport epithelia

gills of freshwater fish use active transport to move salts from dilute surrounding water into blood

13

nitrogenous waste

breakdown of macromolecules produces ammonia, which is a very toxic molecule

14

ammonia waste

mostly freshwater aquatic animals because ammonia can be tolerated at very dilute levels

15

urea

in liver combines ammonia with carbon dioxide and is used by mamals, most amphibians, sharks, some marine fishes

16

uric acid

insoluble in water and costs lots of ATP; insects, land snails, reptiles, birds

17

egg waste

uric acid can since insoluble in water can be secreted in eggs and not harm animal

18

excretory filtration

tubule collects filtrate from blood including water and solutes pushed by blood pressure

19

excretory reabsorption

transport epithelium reclaims essential substances and returns to capillary

20

excretory secretion

toxins and excess ions are pumped from blood by active transport into filtrate tubule

21

excretory excretion

filtrate leaves the body as waste

22

protonephridia

excretory system of flatworms with network of dead end tubules lacking internal openings

23

flame bulb

interstitial fluid filters through cap cell membrane and beating cilia pushes waste towards body wall

24

nephridiopore

waste empties out of protonephridia through this opening in flatworm

25

metanephridia

earthworms have these tubules that are the waste filtering system

26

nephrostome

fluid enters the metanephridia through this from coelemic fluid

27

nephridiopore

the bladder and earthworm excretion system exits here

28

malphigian tubes

insects and terrestrial arthropods have waste removal with tubes open in waste and closed ends in hemolymph collecting salt, water, nitrogenous waste with reabsorption at rectum

29

nephron

a single long tubule with a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus

30

bowmans capsule

beginning of the tubule in the nephron which surrounds the glomerulus

31

juxtamedullary nephrons

well developed loops of henle found in 20% of human nephrons and only in mammals and birds

32

loop of henle

hairpin turn that extends deeply into the renal medulla with a descending and ascending limb

33

renal cortex

outside of the nephron where a proximal and distal tubule are located

34

renal medulla

inside of nephron where the loop of henle and collecting duct are located

35

afferent arteriole

branch of the renal artery that enters the glomerulus

36

efferent arteriole

arterioles that leave the glomerulus

37

peritubular capillaries

capillaries that surround the proximal and distal tubules

38

vasa recta

capillaries that surround the loop of henle

39

proximal tubule filtrate

transport epithelium allow the transfer of Na-Cl with water; transport of toxins and NH3 into the tubule

40

descending loop of henle

transport epithelium is permeable to water but not to salt, which concentrates the filtrate

41

ascending loop of henle

transport epithelium is permeable to salt but not water and upper portion actively transport salt, which concentrates interstitial fluid and lowers osmolarity of renal medulla

42

collecting duct

water is lost to the hyperosmotic interstitial fluid as transport epithelium is not permeable to salt