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Flashcards in cell cycle Deck (20)
1

Interphase

cell grows and copies its chromosomes; 90% of cell cycle

2

G1 phase

about 5-6 hours; mRNA and proteins required for DNA synthesis; some organelle replication

3

S phase

10-12 hours; sister chromatids form but are not visible yet

4

G2 phase

4-6 hours; final checkpoint before mitosis; some organelle replication

5

centrosome

spindle microtubules are assembled here for cell cycle

6

centrioles

pair are found in animal centrosome but are not essential; not in plants

7

aster

radial array of short microtubules extends from each centrosome

8

kinetochore microtubules

during prometaphase some spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores of sister chromatids

9

prophase

first phase of mitosis; sister chromatids are visible

10

prometaphase

second mitosis stage; nuclear envelope fragments; sister chromatids attach to kinetochore microtubules

11

metaphase

third mitosis stage; sister chromatids line up at metaphase plate

12

anaphase

fourth mitosis stage; sister chromatids separate into chromosomes

13

telophase

fifth mitosis stage; nuclear envelope forms and mitosis is complete

14

cytokinesis

animal cells-formation of a cleavage furrow; plant cells-formation of cell plate

15

binary fission

reproduction by prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea)

16

dinoflagellate mitosis

unicellular protists nuclear envelope remains intact and chromosomes attach to nuclear envelope; microtubules pass through nucleus inside cytoplasmic tunnels

17

diatoms

unicellular protists also nuclear envelope remains intact; microtubules form a spindle within the nucleus

18

cyclin dependent kinases

the presence of cyclin and its kinase promotes the passage of different checkpoints

19

G2 checkpoint

maturation promoting factor (MPF) rises during S and G2 phase and is present to degrade the nuclear lamina in prometaphase

20

cell division regulators

density dependent inhibition and anchorage dependence