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Social Studies 9h > India > Flashcards

Flashcards in India Deck (37):
1

Gupta Dynasty

Founder Chandra Gupta/based in Magadha/peace prosperity ideas/decentralized leadership/golden age science and math

2

What happens after the Mauryan Empire?

Division into many kingdoms (Xiongnu seize power and form Kusha Kingdom, Regional kingdom of Bactria

3

Ashoka

Grandson of Chandragupta, expanded empire all of India besides south/built roads/converts to Buddhism after gruesome battle of Kalinga/built stone pillars with Buddhist inscriptions in Sanskrit spread nonviolence

4

Education (guru)

Male studied the Hindu Vedas with a guru teacher to conduct religious family rituals or for professional reasons

5

Chandragupta Maurya

First emperor of first unified Mauryan Empire, drives out Greek Kingdom of Magadha, highly centralized/despotic tyranny/bureaucratic administrative system like Persia and China/spies/feared assassination/divided into provinces/Becomes Jain starves to death

6

Kingdom of Magadha

Most significant ruling kingdom after alexander

7

Kalidasa

Greatest Indian poet, wrote play Shakuntala

8

Astronomy

Solar calendar and round earh

9

Kautilya (Chanakya)

Chandragupta's advisor of Brahmin caste who wrote Treatise on Material Gain or Arthashastra supporting royal power and against anarchy, rational law>sacred

10

Math

Zeros, decimals, and Pi

11

Pataliputra

Capital of Mauryan Empire

12

Gupta decline

Invasion of Xiongnu or "White Huns" smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire (muslim)

13

Social caste system

Connected to hinduism (most popular religion) reincarnation MokshaBrahmin priestKshatriyas warriorVaishyas peasants/merchantsSudras common pplParias/unthought lea

14

Twice born

Privilege ceremony at puberty where young males initiated into adulthood to Indian society

15

Jati

Extended family or kinship group of a particular class each with its own economy/political function

16

Sati

Encouraged wife to die if husband dies bad woman rights

17

Fa-Hsien

Chinese monk Buddhist travels to India and reports a golden age during Gupta dynasty

18

Shift from Indus River to...

Ganges river

19

Jainism

Mahavira, abandoned high class family to lead ascetic life, rejected caste

20

Agricultural issues

Unpredictable climate/ monsoons, payed taxes or rent to landlords

21

Copper and gold led to development of

Banking

22

Ahimsa

Principle of extreme nonviolence, jainists swept earth, strained water etc to avoid killing insects

23

Siddhartha Guatama

The Buddha, prince lived isolated life, left palace saw suffering, became monk, meditate under tree, enlightened

24

4 Noble Truths

End suffering by ending material desires by following eight-fold

25

Eight-fold path/ Middle Way

Changing the way u think and speak to follow the 4-noble truths/balance by rejecting ascetism and great wealth

26

Boddhisatvas

Put nirvana on hold to help other enlighten

27

Mahayana and Hinayana (Theravada) Buddhism

Mahayana is the newer development w/ god and Theravada is the original

28

Bhagavad Gita (Mahabharata)

First epics written of dialouge between Arjuna and Krisha during civil war sets forward ethics of Dharma

29

Stupa

Housed relics of Buddha

30

How was Buddhism different from Brahmanism?

Denied existence ofIndividual soul/Atman and a material world through middle path, bodhi was wisdom of abandoning worldly cares, egalitarian (no class devision), all humans reach nirvana, no gods/ worshipping of Buddhas image after death, philosophy>religion, woman better treatment

31

Rock chamber

Ashoka constructed to provide rooms to house monks/ wandering ascetics

32

Symbols of Guatama

Not portrayed in human form...wheel of life, bodhi tree, and footprint

33

Upanishads

Collection of sacred texts that form the foundation of Hindu religious thought

34

Aryan

Chandragupta Maurya was one, indo European Ganges river group who conquered India from Alexander's empire, influenced Hinduism/social class Varnas/Sanskrit

35

Hinduism

Brahma: creator, Vishnu: protector, shiva: destroyer, remove bodily distractions goal, reincarnate cycle till enlightenment with moksha, dharma good karma

36

Ramayana

Shorter epic of ruler Rama with religious/moral significance

37

How was hinduism different from Buddhism?

Remove bodily distractions from life, (b=reach nirvana, expel illusion of existence) constant cycle of reincarnation until enlightenment follow dharma (b=reborn from karma until nirvana) extreme asceticism (b= "middle way" balance) priests and rituals