Mesopotamia 10 21 14 Flashcards Preview

Social Studies 9h > Mesopotamia 10 21 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mesopotamia 10 21 14 Deck (61):
1

Cataracts

Massive boulders that cause rapid-like river conditions (forbade people to sail across the upper Nile)

2

Menes

Egyptian kings before the pharaohs (the uniting of upper and lower Egypt)

3

Cuneiform

One of the first forms of writing (Sumerian writing)

4

Memphis

The capital of Upper Egypt (in the Old Kingdom)

5

Ziggurat

A massive, tiered, step pyramid-shaped (solid) structure. Located in the center of Mesopotamian cities, used for worship, and had stores around it

6

Dynasty

A series of rulers descending from one family line

7

Epic of Gilgamesh

One of the earliest works of literature. Included the tale of king Gilgamesh and the "flood story"

8

Sargon

Leader of the Akkadians when they invaded Sumer

9

Hammurabi

•Overtook the Sumerians around 1750bce•Created the Babylonian empire•famous for Hammurabi's code: first laws to be written down

10

Irrigation

Manipulating the land to have water flow easier for agriculture

11

Hieroglyphics

Egyptian pictographic writing

12

Artisans

Workers skilled in trade but with handmade objects like art

13

City-State

•acted like an independent country•had the same culture but each ha their own government, rulers, warriors, patron god, etc•included whatever was in the city walls and surrounding farmland

14

Codified

To arrange laws or rules into a systematic code

15

Mohenjo-Daro

Ancient Indus Valley civilization, located in present day Pakistan along the Indus River

16

Nubia

One of the most important region along the Nile river; northern Sudan & southern Egypt

17

Elite

A group or class of people seen as having the greatest and influence within a society, especially because of their wealth/privilege

18

Vizier

The highest Egyptian officials who advised the Pharaoh

19

Surplus

More than what is needed

20

Metallurgy

The study of the properties of metals & their production/ purification

21

Sumer

Ancient region in southern Mesopotamia present day; extreme southeastern Iraq (and other countries)

22

Ur

The first Sumerian city in Mesopotamia, present day Iraq

23

Akkad

North of Sumer, ancient Babylonia

24

Pharaoh

Name of the Egyptian kings from the new kingdom onward

25

Papyrus

A swampy plant that grows standing in water, used to make a paper-like material that the Egyptians used to write on

26

Indus River

One of Southern Asia's longest rivers, runs through northern India and most of Pakistan

27

Cotton

One of the most important vegetable fibers used for textiles

28

Amulet

An object used as a charm, either to protect oneself, bring good luck or ward off evil

29

Alluvial (fan)

a gently sloped cone of soil and rock debris deposited by a stream as it leaves a steep, narrow valley and enters a broad, relatively flat plain.

30

Fertile Cresent

Fertile, agricultural and pastoral land creating a horseshoe (semicircle) in the middle east where the first early civilizations formed

31

Scribe

People who wrote/ recorded written documents (were the only ones who knew how to read and write)

32

Himalayas

A mountain range confining the northern Indian subcontinent

33

Horus

One of the major deities of ancient Egypt

34

Stylus

An instrument used for impressing marks (kind of like a quilted pen)

35

Nile

The longest river in the world, runs through northeastern Africa and the middle of Egypt, empties out into the Mediterranean sea (fertile delta)

36

Harappa

First ancient Indus River Valley civilization, present day Pakistan

37

Pictograph

A picture or picture signs used for communication (writing)

38

Anthropomorphic

Giving human qualities to beings that are not human, objects, or phenomena in nature (personification) ~Human animal hybrid gods

39

Urban planning

The process of analyzing urban conditions, envisioning alternative urban futures, and designing/ implementing plans and policies to better manage the physical development of cities and urban regions

40

Mummification

The process of preserving a human or animal body after death

41

Tigris and Euphrates

In between these two middle eastern rivers was the flourishment of ancient Mesopotamian civilizations

42

Patriarchy

A social system in which men have authority over women and children, and have more rights than women

43

Semitic

Relating to a division of the Afro-Asiatic languages that includes Hebrew and Arabic.

44

Jade

A hard gemstone that has been used for the carving of jewelry and small sculptures (since ancient times)

45

Sewage System

A systematic way to carry out access waste (away from houses and towns), first invented by the Harrappan civilization

46

Loess

a loose surface sediment originally formed by wind action; deposit of windblown, silty material.

47

Oracle Bones

Inscribed animal bones which preserved the earliest example of Chinese writing

48

Babylon

A city in ancient Mesopotamia located beside the Euphrates River (southwest Asia)

49

Hindu Kush

A mountain range going through northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, the Khyber pass was the only way to access ancient India through these mountains

50

Pyramid

A structure with triangular sides, rises to a peak from a square, etc. base, made by the Egyptians to bury their Pharaohs

51

Huang He

Also called the Yellow River in northeastern China, vulnerable to flooding, yellowish from the loess

52

Hierarchy

A group of people or things classified according to their rank or grade

53

Thebes

Capital of ancient Egypt and the chief city of the south (Upper Egypt).

54

Monsoon

Seasonal (dry/wet) winds that blow one way half of the year and the reverse way the other half of the year

55

Ancient Seals

Died symbols or inscriptions indicating ownership, and the impression they make

56

Anyang

The capital of the Shang dynasty in northern China

57

Social mobility

Movement of people in social class

58

Slave labor

People of captures/conquered lands are used to make public works

59

"The Gift of the Nile"

The ancient Egyptians thought that the Nile was a blessing, they were thankful for their river in the middle of the desert and predictable flooding.

60

Shang

Ancient Chinese dynasty from 1700-1027 bc., they had the first written records, terrace farming, sharp division between kings, nobles and peasants, elites, etc.

61

Social Mobility

The ability to change your social status