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Flashcards in Intro to Antihypertensive Agents II Deck (50)
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31

thiazide diuretics

inhibits Na/Cl cotransport and block Na/Cl reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule

-increased lumen Na and Cl in DCT
> diuresis

-increased reabsorption of Ca in PCT
>due to volume contraction

**indicated for kidney stones (like loop diuretics)

32

uses for thiazide diuretics

HTN, mild heart failure, nephrolithiasis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

33

side effects of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia

thiazide diuretics

caution in diabetic patients

34

adverse effects of thiazide diuretics

hypokalemia, alkalosis, hypercalcemia*, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia*, sulfonamide hypersensitivity

*caution with diabetics

35

mechanisms of K sparing diuretics

-mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists
-ENaC inhibitors

both decrease ENaC at luminal membrane
>no Na reabsorption at collecting tubule
>no loss of potassium

**no hypokalemia

**add this to stop hypokalemia with other drugs

36

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists

inhibit aldosterone
>decreased ENaC in principal cells of collecting duct
>diuresis

**don't require access to tubular lumen

37

clinical for K sparing diuretics (MR antagonists)

hyperaldosteronism, antiandrogenic use, heart failure

38

clinical for K sparing diuretics (ENaC (-))

adjunct for K-wasting diuretics, lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

39

adverse effects for K sparing diuretics (MR antagonists)

hyperkalemia, acidosis, antiandrogenic effects

40

adverse effects of K sparing diuretics (ENaC inhibitors)

hyperkalemia and acidosis

41

mineralocorticoid receptor

nuclear hormone receptor
-natural agonist is mineralocorticoids influence salt and water balance

ex agonists/ aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone, cortisol

aka aldosterone receptor

42

CAIs and pH

decreased body pH

43

loop diuretics and pH

increased body pH

44

loop agent plus thiazides and pH

increased body pH

45

K sparing diuretics and pH

decrease body pH

46

all diuretics

increased NaCl in urine

47

diuretics and HCO3

CAIs have largest urinary HCO3
-therefore acidosis occurs

48

all diuretics except K sparing

increased K in urine
-hypokalemia

49

CAIs and K sparing diuretics

decreased body pH

50

loop agents, thiazides, loop agents plus thiazides

increased body pH