Key 2- Inflammation, Apoptosis and necrosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key 2- Inflammation, Apoptosis and necrosis Deck (46)
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1

The alternative pathway, which can be triggered by.....................

microbial surface molecules (e.g., endotoxin, or LPS), complex polysaccharides, cobra venom, and other substances, in the absence of antibody.

2

Leukotriene B4 = FUNCTION?

Chemotaxis

3

Leukotriene C4, D4, E4 ...FUNCTIONS? (AGGRAVATED IN ASPIRIN USE)

Broncho Constriction- smooth muscle

(NON-ATOPIC ASTHMA)

4

THROMBOXANE a2- FUNCTION?

PROMOTE PLATELET AGGREGATION

STOP THIS MEDICATION TO PREVENT CLOT!!

5

CONTRACTION OF SMOOTH MUSCLE IS CAUSED BY?

PG

6

MUSCLE WASTING, DEATH IN CANCER PATIENT (MEDIATOR)?

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

7

PROSTACYCLIN FUNCTION?

VASODILATATION

(ALSO NITRIC OXIDE)

and

Inhibit platelet Aggregation

8

Interleukin-1 FUNCTION?

1.Acute phase reaction (eg: fever)

2.Endothelial effect (Leukocyte adhesion, pro & anticoagulant effect)

3.Fibroblast Effect (collagen synthesis – scar)

 

BAD!!!, IS NOT IT?

9

MEDIATOR ACTIVATE MACROPHAGE?

Interferon-gamma FROM CD4 CELLS 

(ALSO IL-12 CAUSES INCREASED PRODUCTION OF INF)

10

MEDIATOR, THAT INCREASES SAA, FIBRINOGEN, CRP  IS?

IL-6

TEST ESR!

11

NEUTROPHIL'S Specific (or secondary) granules PRODUCE?

Lysozyme, collagenase, gelatinase, lactoferrin, plasminogen activator, histaminase, and alkaline phosphatase.

12

NEUTROPHIL'S Azurophil (or primary) granules PRODUCE?

Myeloperoxidase (THINK P-ANCA), bactericidal factors (lysozyme=THINK ABSCESS FORMATION), defensins).

13

MACROPHAGE AND LIQUIFRACTIVE NCROSIS IN BRAIN- DISCUSS

– acid proteases (only active within lysosomes).

– neutral proteases such as elastase and collagenase are destructive in ECM.

Typical in Liquefactive necrosis- BRAIN 

14

C3a, C5a: ==?

stimulate histamine release from mast cells and thereby increase vascular permeability and cause vasodilation

15

C5a:===?

chemotactic agent for neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils 

16

Opsonization and phagocytosis: ?

C3b AND IG

17

MAC (MEMBRANE ATTACH COMPLEX)- deficiency of the terminal components of complement predisposes to ....................infections.

Neisseria

18

MAC•This tube LIKE STRUCTURE forms a channel allowing the passage of ions and small molecules. Water enters the cell by ...............and the cell lysis. 

THIS PROCESS SEEN IN WHICH CONDITIONS?

....Osmosis

A-In immune hemolysis (MISMATCHED BLOOD TRANSFUSION)

A-PNH

​​

19

•C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) 

–blocks the activation of C1, the first protein of the classical complement pathway. Inherited deficiency of this inhibitor is the cause of .........................

hereditary angioedema

20

•Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and CD59

–DAF prevents the formation of ..........................and CD59 inhibits the formation of the ...........................

•An acquired deficiency of the enzyme leads to excessive .....................activation and lysis of red cells in the disease called ............................. 

C3 convertases, membrane attack complex (C5b-9)

complement, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

21

HISTAMINE (Mast CELL-DERIVED/PREFORMED GRANULES)- FUNCTIONS?

EARLY VASODILATION AND PERMEABILITY 

OTHER FUNCTIONS=

–physical injury, such as trauma, cold, or heat, BEE STRING, 

–binding of antibodies to mast cells, which underlies immediate hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions [(ASTHMA EARLY PHAGE MEDIATOR) ] and

–products of complement called anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a)

–Neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) and cytokines (IL-1, IL-8) may also trigger the release of histamine

22

PAF FUNCTION-............?

PLATELET ACITIVATION, VASODILATION AND PERMEABILITY

23

Kinins FUNCTIONS?

Increased vascular permeability, smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, pain

24

Lipoxygenase inhibitors. 5-lipoxygenase is not affected by .....................

NSAIDs

25

DIAGNOSIS?

COAGULATIVE NECROSIS

FATE- SCAR

26

MECHANISM?

NEUTROPHIL LYSOZYME INDUCED NECROSIS

27

HISTOLOGICAL FINDING: COAGULATIVE NECROSIS AND BLOOD=...?

REPERFUSION INJURY

28

DIAGNOSIS?

NON CASEATING GRANULOMA

29

The destruction of cells during embryogenesis...?

APOPTOPSIS

30

Involution of hormone-dependent tissues upon hormone withdrawal...?

APOPTOSIS