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Flashcards in PathEndocrine Deck (112)
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1

3 classic symptoms of prolactinoma

Galactorrhea, amenorrhea (females) Impotence (males)

2

A typical complication of prolactinoma

Fracture/osteopenia

3

Secondary complication of growth cell adenoma (besides growth) and its mechanism

Diabetes Mellitus, because growth hormone is gluconeogenic

4

Diagnostic test for GH adenoma

Failure of glucose to suppress GH

5

bone condition seen in women with prolactinoma and its mechanism

Osteoporosis Prolactin inhibits GnRH = no estrogen = increased osteoclast activity

6

Lab findings of GH cell adenoma GH: Glucose, IGF1, OGTT test

Elevated GH, elevated glucose, high IGF-1 in serum and impaired OGTT test

7

cell of origin in prolactinoma

acidophilic cells of ant. pituitary

8

Woman gives birth, begins breast feeding and then a week later she notices loss of pubic hair and difficulty with breast feeding

Sheehan syndrome

9

Sheenan syndrome pathogenesis

During pregnancy, pituitary swells 2x but doesn't increase blood flow. If blood is lost during labor, pituitary infarcts (coagulative necrosis)

10

Empty sella syndrome defect

Herniation of arachnoid and CSF into the sella, destroying the pituitary

11

Sudden onset severe headache and bitemporal hemianopsia and diplopia

Pituitary apoplexy

12

Major cause that central DI 

Null cell adenoma, hypothalamic injury, etc

13

Lab findings of nephrogenic DI (serum ADH, urine sp. gravity)

high, low

14

Most common site of ectopic ADH production

Small Cell Lung Cacner/oat cell carcinoma

15

2 lab values that distinguish SIADH from DI

Sodium and serum osmolality SIADH is hyponatremic, low osmolality, the others are hypernatremic, high osmolality

16

Midline anterior neck mass in a child

Thyroglossal duct cyst

17

Graves disease defect (name one antibody)

IgG stimulates TSH receptor

18

3 PE findings of Graves

Goiter Exophthalmos Myxedema and skin pigmentation

19

mechanism of exopthalmos and pretibial myxedema

T cells stimulate Fibroblasts release to glycosaminoglycans --> increases osmotic swelling and adipocyte size --> exopthalmos

20

3 major cell types involved in exophthalmos

Fibroblasts T cells Fat cells

21

Histology of graves

Tall follicular cells, papillary processes with colloid scalloping Scalloped colloid looks like little tombstones --> like...GRAVES

22

Patient with hyperthyroidism undergoes a surgery under general anesthesia. When they wake up they develop severe hyperthermia, Delerium, tachycardia and arrhythmias

Diagnosis?

Thyroid Storm

23

Are hot nodules (with I131 thyroid scan) benign or malignant

Benign (mostly)

24

Infant with pot bellly, swollen face, protruding umbilicul, tongue falling out of mouth

Cretinism --> congential hypothyroid

25

6 Ps of cretinism

Pot belly Protruding umbilicus Protouding tongue Pale Puffy Face Poor brain development

26

Myxedema cause

accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in skin and soft tissue

27

Patent states they've been gaining weight despite not eating more, feels fatigued and has noticed deepening of voice and feels like their tongue is larger than normal

Hypothryoidism

28

Hashimoto defect (3 Ab)

IgG ab against thyroid peroxidase, IgG against thyroglobulin, Antimicrosomal Ab

29

HLA association with hashimoto

HLA DR5

30

classic paradox in lab findings in Hashimoto

Patients initially present with elevated T4 levels and SSx of hyperthyroid, then come back and have SSx of hypothyroid