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Flashcards in RENAL PATHOLOGY 1 Deck (55)
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1

Red colored urine suggests the presence of?

hemoglobin, myoglobin, or red blood cells

2

Cloudy or turbid urine suggests the presence of?

Protein, crystals, cells or casts

3

hematuria from hemolysis

hemoglobinuria

4

hematuria from skeletal muscle injury or rhabdomyolysis

myoglobinuria

5

Dysmorphic RBC

Glomerular injury

6

the higher specific gravity of urine indicates?

Likely SIADH

7

Urine protein +4 protein

More than 3.5 gm/24 hours; likely nephrotic syndrome

8

Bence-Jones and LARGE hyalin cast in kidney

multiple myeloma

9

Interpreting the dipstick for blood requires comparison with the microscopic exam and generally there should be (1) on microscopic exam when there is positive blood on dipstick

red cells (erythrocytes)

10

If the dipstick shows blood without red cells present, then this could be (1), indicating that hemolysis has occurred (for (2) or muscle injury (for (3).

1. hemoglobulinuria or myoglobinuria 2. hemoglobulinuria 3. myoglobin

11

If nitrite is present in urine by dipstick, it may be an indication that (1) are present

1. nitrite producing bacteria

12

Another dipstick test for urinary tract infection is the detection of (1) which is not normally found in urine unless the white cells which express (1) are present

1. leukocyte esterase

13

pyuria- disease

cystitis/acute pyelonephritis

14

Waxy cast

ESKD

15

The most important concept in urinalysis is that casts indicate (1) 

1. renal location of disease 

16

form when cells or protein are trapped in tubules and form molds of their surroundings

casts

17

24-hour urine collection

Check for total protein loss

18

Red cells, either alone or within casts, lack nuclei so can generally be readily distinguished from (1) casts

white cell or epithelial cell

19

White cells are usually?

neutrophils

20

Eosinophils in Urine

Drug-induced allergy

21

Red blood cell casts generally indicate (1) and white blood cell casts indicate (2)

1. glomerular inflammation/type of glomerulonephritis 2. infection within the kidney which is called pyelonephritis

22

Epithelial cell casts are found in (1) but often degenerate into (2)

1. acute kidney injury (previously called acute tubular necrosis or ATN) 2. granular casts (muddy brown)

23

Protein can form casts in the renal tubules in patients with (1) which is also useful for diagnosis (if too many)

1. Chronic Pyelonephritis

24

Stone - kidney

crystals in urine

25

(1) crystals tend to form in acidic urine while (2) crystals tend to form in alkaline urine

1. Uric acid and cystine 2. triple phosphate

26

one strategy to try and prevent crystal formation is?

making urine pH more or less alkaline in order to decrease crystal formation

27

RBC cast

Glomerular disease

28

Urinalysis can be ___, ____, and ____

Macroscopic; chemical; or microscopic`

29

Black urine (on standing)

Alkaptonuria

30

Sp Gravity 1.010

CRF