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Flashcards in Key Terms Deck (68):
1

Self-Esteem

Feelings of high or low self-worth.

2

Peer Pressure

The internal pressure one feels to behave as a peer group does, in order to gain its members' approval.

3

Bullying

Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.

4

Body Image

The way you see your body.

5

Scaffolding

Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level.

6

Industry vs. Inferiority

Erikson's stage between 6 and 11 years, when the child learns to be productive.

7

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Erikson's stage during which teenagers and young adults search for and become their true selves.

8

Modeling

Learning by imitating others; copying behavior.

9

Teaming

To swap ideas, use two approaches for concept when material is complex, different points of view.

10

Integrated Curriculum

Curriculum in which concepts and skills from various disciplines are combined and related.

11

Integrated Unit

Lessons that integrate, or bring together, more than one content area in a single lesson.

12

Freshman Academy

Separate part of the school, with its own staff; just for Freshmen.

13

Mentoring

Advising people with less experience.

14

Process Writing

Prewriting, drafting, conference, revising, editing, publishing.

15

Cloze Method

A procedure where a word or words has/have been removed and the student must fill them in based on context clues.

16

Writing Across the Curriculum

Incorporating writing activities into science, social studies, math, and other subjects as appropriate.

17

Cooperative Learning

Small groups of classmates work toward common goals.

18

Jigsaw Learning

A cooperative learning strategy: groups find different pieces of information, then come together to combine it.

19

KWL Chart

Activating prior knowledge activity:

23

STAD

A cooperative learning method for mixed ability groups involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning.

24

Accommodations

Variables that can be: High-Tech. Low-Tech, and Social

25

Enrichment

Educational approach that provides a child with extra learning experiences that the standard curriculum would not normally include.

26

Monitoring

Classroom management technique: up and moving, eye contact, proximity, and overlapping.

27

Differentiating Instruction

A means of devising or creating multiple paths to achieve learning goals or objectives.

28

Graphic Organizer

A visual aid to help organize information.

29

Student Centered

Learning target focused on the student and his or her performance.

30

Discovery Learning

A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.

31

Reflect, Revise, Re-Teach

Post teaching strategy to help fix problems and gain the best results for students.

32

Intentionality

Doing things for a purpose; teachers who use intentionality plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to achieve.

33

Self-Efficacy

One's belief in his or her own ability. (Bandura)

34

Formative Assessment

Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching.

35

Summative Assessment

Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit.

36

Informal Assessment

Ongoing classroom activities focused on individual achievements.

37

Formal Assessment

The process of systematically gathering the same kind of information from every student.

38

Developmentally Appropriate

Tasks that are suitable to a child given his/her age and interests.

39

IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

40

IEP

The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs.

41

FAPE

All children must receive a free, appropriate public education at public expense. Principle of IDEA.

42

LRE

Least Restrictive Environment.

43

Constructivism

Theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, knowledge from their experiences.

44

Transfer

Application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation.

45

Metacognition

The awareness of one's own cognitive process. (Thinking about thinking)

46

Zone of Proximal Development

In Vygotsky's theory, a range of tasks too difficult for a child to do alone but possible with the help of more-skilled partners.

47

Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.

48

Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.

49

Readiness

The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.

50

Bloom's Taxonomy

Knowledge > Comprehension > Application > Analysis > Synthesis > Evaluation

51

Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

52

Learned Helplessness

When one becomes dependant on others and beginning to think that you have no ability to do for yourself.

53

Operant Conditioning

(Skinner) A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punishment.

54

Direct Instruction

Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation.

55

State Standards

Explicit statements specifying what students are expected to learn.

56

Essential Question

A provocative question designed to engage student interest and guide inquiry into the important ideas in a field of study.

57

Backward Design

A process for designing a curriculum or unit by beginning with the end in mind and designing toward that end.

58

Scope and Sequence

Scope is what you are covering and sequence is when you are covering it.

59

Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

60

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results.

61

Stanine

Divide distribution of scores into 9 equal intervals (1=low, 9=high).

62

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954 - Ruled that racial segregation in public schools was not equal, so could not occur.

63

Sensorimotor Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

64

Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

65

Concrete Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 7-11) of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.

66

Formal Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.

67

Assimilation

In the theories of Jean Piaget: Attaching old schema to a new object.

68

With-It-Ness

Awareness of what is happening in your classroom.

69

Objectives

What students must know after a lesson.

70

Norm-Referenced Test

A test that evaluates each individual relative to a normative group.

71

Criterion-Referenced Test

A test that measures achievement according to a predetermined standard.