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Flashcards in EnvironmentStudentLearning Deck (40):
1

Objectives

Planning for instruction begins with choosing an objective that expresses this purpose; refers to outcomes, while goals usually refer to more general purposes of instruction

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Benjamin Bloom

three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor

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Six Levels on Cognitive Domain

most useful in classifying objectives

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Choosing and Sequencing Objectives

should meet the overall goal of the school district

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Modifying Objectives

to meet your needs, to meet needs of diverse student populations

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Writing Objectives

should not be overly specific, involved, or complicated

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Planning to Teach the Lesson

Determine the prerequisite competencies; knowledge and skills students possess to learn the objective

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Anticipatory set

something that is said or done to prepare students and focus the students on the lesson

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Objective and purpose

teacher state the objective of the lesson and the students is aware of the objective

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Input

new information

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Modeling

the skills or procedures being taught or demonstrated

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Checking for understanding

following the instructional components in the previous two stages, the teacher should ensure that students understand the concept before moving to the next phases of the lesson

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Guided practice

students are given the opportunity to practice or use the concept or skill with the teacher's guidance

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Independent practice

students practice or use the concept on their own

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Assessment program/instrument

measure mastery and understanding of important topics

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Formative assessment

information is usually gathered before or during teaching; used to help you prepare appropriate lessons and assist students; help teachers decide which objectives to teach, which instructional techniques to use, and which special help or services to provide to individual students

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Summative assessment

information is usually gathered once instruction is complete; used to make judgments about student achievement and the effectiveness of the instructional programs

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Assessment Instruments

Tests used to determine what students have learned and to compare students. student may know something but be unable to demonstrate it on a particular test

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Errors of Measurement

every test contains errors of measurement; no one test accurately measures a student's achievement or ability

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Reliability

a reliable test is consistent; gives similar results when given to the same person in a short time span

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Validity

valid tests measure what they are supposed to measure

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Norm-referenced

designed to compare students (intelligence tests)

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Standardized achievement tests

yield grade-level equivalent and percentile scores;

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Criterion-referenced tests

designed to determine the degree to which an objective has been reached (teacher-made tests); very high content validity

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Authentic Assessment

students are asked to demonstrate the skill or knowledge in a real-life setting; collaborate with teacher and discuss progress and how to facilitate that learning

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Motivation

interests the learner and focuses their attention on the lesson

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Intrinsic motivation

refers to topics that students like or enjoy; based on a knowledge of what is popular or interesting to students of a particular age

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extrinsic motivation

focuses on external rewards for good work or goal attainment; most successful when used in conjunction with more routine work; praise can be used effectively during a lesson if given for a specific accomplishment and focused on student's own behavior

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Indirect Teacher Talk

Accepts feelings-accepts student's feelings

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Direct Teacher Talk

Lectures, explains, or demonstrates-presents facts, opinions, or demonstrations related to the lesson topic

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Student Talk

Student talk (response)-responds to teacher's question

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Teacher-centered Approaches

characterized by teacher presentation, a factual question, and a knowledge-based response from the student

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Lecture

fairly long verbal presentation of material

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Explanation

shorter presentation

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Lecture and Explanation

begins with motivation, teacher maintains eye contact, teacher supplies accentuating gestures without extraneous movements, the presentation is limited to about 5-40 minutes depending on the age of the student, objective is clear and the presentation is easy to follow and at an appropriate level

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Demonstration

lectures or explanation in which you model what you want students to learn

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Teacher Questions

frequently asked during class; address the vast majority of questions to the entire class,

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Cooperative Learning

students work together in groups to learn a concept or skill or to complete a project; characterized by active learning, full participation, and democracy within a clearly established structure; students establish personal relationships and a cooperative working style

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Inquiry Learning

uses students' own thought processes to help them learn a concept, solve a problem, or discover a relationship; requires the ost structure and preparation by the teacher

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Resources for Instruction

helps the students meet the lesson objectives and match the teaching-learning approach; may include textual, manipulative, technological, and human resources (texts, workbooks, teacher-made handouts, or other printed materials); lab should be tested and safe and everything should be age appropriate for students, and computers may be used