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Flashcards in Students as Learners Deck (71):
1

Accomodation

Responding to a new event or object by changing an existing scheme or creating a new scheme

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Assimilation

Responding to a new event or object that is consistent with an existing scheme

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Classical Conditioning

A process of behavior modification by which a person comes to respond in the desired manner to what was once a neutral stimulus. The neutral stimulus has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that eventually elicits the desired response

4

Conservation

Knowing that a number or amount stays the same even when rearranged or presented in a different shape

5

Constructivism

A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people construct their own understanding of the world they live in through reflection on experiences

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Convergent Thinking

A process of gathering several pieces of information together to solve a problem

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Creativity

New and original behavior that creates a culturally appropriate product

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Discovery Learning

Teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups

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Disequilibrium

One's inability to explain new events based on existing schemes, which is usually accompanied by discomfort

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Disposition

A person's natural tendency to approach learning or problem solving in certain ways

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Distributed Cognition

A process in which two or more learners share their thinking as they work together to solve a problem

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Divergent Thinking

The process of mentally taking a single idea and expanding it in several directions

13

Equilibration

Movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium and then back to equilibrium again

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Equilibrium

One's ability to explain new events based on existing schemes

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Long-Term Memory

The part of memory that holds skills and knowledge for a long time

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Metacognition

A person's ability to think about his or her own thinking

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Operant Conditioning

A form of psychological learning in which the learner modifies his or her own behavior based on the association of the behavior with a stimulus

18

Problem Solving

To use existing knowledge or skills to solve problems or complex issues

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Readiness to Learn

A context within which a student's more basic needs (sleep, safety, love) are met and the student is cognitively ready for developmentally appropriate problem solving and learning

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Response

A specific behavior that a person demonstrates

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Scaffolding

Instructional supports provided to a student by an adult or a more capable peer in a learning situation. The more capable a student becomes with a certain skill or concept, the less instructional scaffolding the adult or peer needs to provide

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Schema

A concept in the mind about events, scenarios, actions, or objects that have been acquired from past experience

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Self-Efficacy

A belief that one is capable

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Self-Regulation

The process of taking control of one's own learning or behavior

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Stimulus (Stimuli)

A specific object or event that influences (positively or negatively) a person's learning or behavior

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Transfer

The ability to apply a lesson learned in one situation to a new situation

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Working Memory

The part of memory that holds and actively processes a limited amount of information for a short amount of time

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Zone of Proximal Development

It suggests that students learn best in a social context in which a more-able adult or peer teaches the student something he or she could not learn on his or her own

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Acculturation

Process of learning and adopting the customs and values of another culture

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Auditory (or Aural) Learner

They learn through lectures, discussions, listening to tapes, repeating information and reading aloud

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Autism Spectrum Disorders

Students with these disorders have difficulty socializing and communicating

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Behavior Disorder

A type of disruptive behavior disorder in children and adolescents. These students may violate rules, show aggression toward people or animals or destory property

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Cognitive Style

A person's way of perceiving and remembering information; the way the person thinks or solves problems

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Concrete Operational Thinker

Children ages 7 to 11 think in logical terms and not in abstract terms. They require hands-on experiences to learn concepts

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Developmental Delays

The student may have one or more of the following difficulties: self-care, expressive or receptive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, or economic self-sufficiency

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Disposition

A person's overall approach and temperament when solving problems, learning and thinking

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Formal Operational Thinkers

Children ages 11 to 15 develop hypothetical and abstract thinking. They can use logical operations to work with abstract problems

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Functional Mental Retardation

A diagnosis determined by a medical professional for a child who exhibits difficulties with the following: age-specific activities, communication, daily living activities and getting along with others

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Giftedness

Significantly higher than usual ability or aptitude in one or more areas

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Kinesthetic Learner

They process information through moving and doing. They learn through acting out scenes, putting on plays, moving to the beat, pacing out measurements on the sidewalk

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Physical or Sensory Difficulties

Affect school performances significantly such as health, visual or hearing impairments

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Tactile Learner

They process information through touching. They learn through active involvement with the physical world

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Visual Learner

They process information through seeing. THey learn through visual displays, films, illustrated books, handouts, graphic organizers and bulletin boards

44

American with Disabilities Act

A federal law, enacted in 1990, that prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs and activities provided or made available by state and local governments

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Due Process

A set of procedures or safeguards that give students with disabilities and their parents/guardians extensive rights that include notice of meetings, opportunities to examine relevant records, impartial hearings and a review procedure

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Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Legislation passed in 1974 that gives students and parents access to school records and limits others' access to those records

47

Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

A federal statute, enacted in 1990, that has resulted in several grant programs to states in educating students with disabilities.

48

Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

A written plan for a student with disabilities developed by a team of professionals (teachers, special educators, school psychologists) and the child's parents or caregivers. It is based on an evaluation by the child's multidisciplinary team and describes how the child is doing presently, what the child's learning needs are and what services the child will need

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Inclusion

Inclusive education strives to educate a child with disabilities in his or her neighborhood school and in the regular education classroom as much as possible

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Least Restrictive Enviornment (LRE)

The educational setting that allows students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled peers

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Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

A civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities

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Attribution

When one constructs a casual explanation for failure or success

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Cognitive Discconance

A feeling of mental discomfort in which new information conflicts with beliefs or previously learned information

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Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation that comes from external sources or from outside a person such as stickers or behavior charts

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Facilitating Anxiety

A low level of anxiety that actually can enhance student learning and performance on classroom assessments

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Debilitating Anxiety

A high level of anxiety that detracts from a student's ability to concentrate on the task or even the attempt the task out of fear and intense concern

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Intrinsic Motivation

Motivation that comes from within, or from inside a person such as providing students time to reflect on gials and achievements

58

Learned Helplessness

A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision making

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Punishment

The goal is to weaken or extinguish an undesired behavior

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Reinforcement

The process or action of strengthening or reinforcing a behavior.

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Positive Reinforcement

Involves a stimulus to increase a desired response

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Negative Reinforcement

Involves removing a negative stimulus to increase a desired response

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Self-Determination

Suggests that humans have a basic need for autonomy when it comes to the courses their lives take

64

Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

65

Concrete Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 7-11) of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.

66

Formal Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.

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Assimilation

In the theories of Jean Piaget: Attaching old schema to a new object.

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With-It-Ness

Awareness of what is happening in your classroom.

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Objectives

What students must know after a lesson.

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Norm-Referenced Test

A test that evaluates each individual relative to a normative group.

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Criterion-Referenced Test

A test that measures achievement according to a predetermined standard.