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Flashcards in Students as Diverse Learners Deck (63):
1

How is student's learning influenced?

Age; cognitive development; language, culture, family, community values, individual experiences, talents, motivations and prior learning.

2

Sucessful teachers need to understand each individual and all of the variables of their lives to be able to understand how they will __________.

Learn....

3

What are the primary group differences?

Language, culture, family and community values.

4

What are the primary individual difference?

Individual experiences, talents, motivations, and prior learnings. (SCHEMA)

5

_______: Behaviors that are generally shared among students of specific cultural and ethnic groups.

Group differences

6

How are group differences identified?

when the behavior of the individuals in the same group is more similar, on average, than the behaviors of individuals from different groups.

7

What is the norm?

Average behavior of the members of a group. It is important to remember that individuals within a group will also be somewhat different from one another.

8

Gender Differences: Girls develop ______ _____ skills earlier than boys.

Fine Motor Skills

9

Gender Differences: Girls have ______ earlier than boys.

Puberty

11

On average, boys and girls perform ______ on test of general intelligence.

similarly..

13

Boys perform better on task requiring ________ skills.

Visual - Spatial

14

Ability to imagine and mentally manipulate two-and three-dimensional figures.

Visual - Spatial (Boys perform Better)

15

Girls perform better on some, but not all, verbal skills and tend to have larger _______.

Vocabulary.

16

Researchers speculate that gender differences are in part due to _________

differences in brain development.

18

More boys that girls are identified with _________

learning disabilities

19

Boys are more ______ than girls

Active... they talk more and ask more questions, and they are more likely to call out answers and dominate the classroom

20

______ are slower to respond in groups, less likely to volunteer ideas and ask questions, and often wait to be called on directly.

girls

21

Teachers should keep cultural differences in mind when anticipating or evaluating student behaviors, as the _________ ________ that occurs when the child's home culture and school culture have conflicting expectations that can negatively affect student's academic achievement.

Cultural Mismatch.

22

List five Cultural differences

1. Use of Language and Dialect

27

Dialect

_______: form of speech that has certain unique pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group

28

___________: people who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence.

Ethnic Group

29

interdependence

a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services

30

Socioeconimic Status (SES)

A measure of social class based on income and education. *** definition from online search****

31

Students from _______ SES, especially those who live in poverty, are at risk of academic difficulties and behavior problems.

Lower

32

Children of Lower SES are frequently faced with: (list a few)

Poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate and often unstable housing, and fewer community and home resources... less parental involvement, fewer classroom resources, and teachers with lower expectations, less safe neighborhoods.

33

Teachers should also recognize and attend to

individual differences in temperament, personality, and motivation.

34

_________ hypothesized about general intelligence as a single (g).

Spearman

35

______: Theoretical general factor in intelligence that influences one's ability to learn in a wide variety of contexts.

(G)

37

________: suggested intelligences is a triarchic, compromising analytical, creative, and practical intelligences.

Sternberg

38

Triarchic theory of intelligence is a view of intelligence that

proponents argue that intelligent behavior arises from a balance between analytical, creative and practical abilities.

39

Research shows that there are clear differences in student's information processing abilities called ______

fluid intelligence

40

Crystallized intelligence is also known as ___________

basic knowledge

41

What ability is associated with maturity is most influential in learning?

Listening to the ideas of others

42

Students with the same intelligence levels often approach classroom task and think about topics differently. These individual differences are due to ________ or ________ styles

Cognitive or Learning

43

Analytic learners

__________ learners break down tasks into pieces and approach each piece separately

44

Holistic Learners

_________ learners approach a task as a single integrated project.

45

Due Process

A set of procedures or safeguards that give students with disabilities and their parents/guardians extensive rights that include notice of meetings, opportunities to examine relevant records, impartial hearings and a review procedure

46

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

Legislation passed in 1974 that gives students and parents access to school records and limits others' access to those records

47

Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

A federal statute, enacted in 1990, that has resulted in several grant programs to states in educating students with disabilities.

48

Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

A written plan for a student with disabilities developed by a team of professionals (teachers, special educators, school psychologists) and the child's parents or caregivers. It is based on an evaluation by the child's multidisciplinary team and describes how the child is doing presently, what the child's learning needs are and what services the child will need

49

Inclusion

Inclusive education strives to educate a child with disabilities in his or her neighborhood school and in the regular education classroom as much as possible

50

Least Restrictive Enviornment (LRE)

The educational setting that allows students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled peers

51

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

A civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities

52

Attribution

When one constructs a casual explanation for failure or success

53

Cognitive Discconance

A feeling of mental discomfort in which new information conflicts with beliefs or previously learned information

54

Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation that comes from external sources or from outside a person such as stickers or behavior charts

55

Facilitating Anxiety

A low level of anxiety that actually can enhance student learning and performance on classroom assessments

56

Debilitating Anxiety

A high level of anxiety that detracts from a student's ability to concentrate on the task or even the attempt the task out of fear and intense concern

57

Intrinsic Motivation

Motivation that comes from within, or from inside a person such as providing students time to reflect on gials and achievements

58

Learned Helplessness

A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision making

59

Punishment

The goal is to weaken or extinguish an undesired behavior

60

Reinforcement

The process or action of strengthening or reinforcing a behavior.

61

Positive Reinforcement

Involves a stimulus to increase a desired response

62

Negative Reinforcement

Involves removing a negative stimulus to increase a desired response

63

Self-Determination

Suggests that humans have a basic need for autonomy when it comes to the courses their lives take

64

Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

65

Concrete Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 7-11) of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.

66

Formal Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.

67

Assimilation

In the theories of Jean Piaget: Attaching old schema to a new object.

68

With-It-Ness

Awareness of what is happening in your classroom.

69

Objectives

What students must know after a lesson.

70

Norm-Referenced Test

A test that evaluates each individual relative to a normative group.

71

Criterion-Referenced Test

A test that measures achievement according to a predetermined standard.