Flashcards in Students as Diverse Learners Deck (63):
How is student's learning influenced?
Age; cognitive development; language, culture, family, community values, individual experiences, talents, motivations and prior learning.
Sucessful teachers need to understand each individual and all of the variables of their lives to be able to understand how they will __________.
What are the primary group differences?
Language, culture, family and community values.
What are the primary individual difference?
Individual experiences, talents, motivations, and prior learnings. (SCHEMA)
_______: Behaviors that are generally shared among students of specific cultural and ethnic groups.
How are group differences identified?
when the behavior of the individuals in the same group is more similar, on average, than the behaviors of individuals from different groups.
What is the norm?
Average behavior of the members of a group. It is important to remember that individuals within a group will also be somewhat different from one another.
Gender Differences: Girls develop ______ _____ skills earlier than boys.
Fine Motor Skills
Gender Differences: Girls have ______ earlier than boys.
On average, boys and girls perform ______ on test of general intelligence.
Boys perform better on task requiring ________ skills.
Visual - Spatial
Ability to imagine and mentally manipulate two-and three-dimensional figures.
Visual - Spatial (Boys perform Better)
Girls perform better on some, but not all, verbal skills and tend to have larger _______.
Researchers speculate that gender differences are in part due to _________
differences in brain development.
More boys that girls are identified with _________
Boys are more ______ than girls
Active... they talk more and ask more questions, and they are more likely to call out answers and dominate the classroom
______ are slower to respond in groups, less likely to volunteer ideas and ask questions, and often wait to be called on directly.
Teachers should keep cultural differences in mind when anticipating or evaluating student behaviors, as the _________ ________ that occurs when the child's home culture and school culture have conflicting expectations that can negatively affect student's academic achievement.
List five Cultural differences
1. Use of Language and Dialect
_______: form of speech that has certain unique pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group
___________: people who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence.
a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services
Socioeconimic Status (SES)
A measure of social class based on income and education. *** definition from online search****
Students from _______ SES, especially those who live in poverty, are at risk of academic difficulties and behavior problems.
Children of Lower SES are frequently faced with: (list a few)
Poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate and often unstable housing, and fewer community and home resources... less parental involvement, fewer classroom resources, and teachers with lower expectations, less safe neighborhoods.
Teachers should also recognize and attend to
individual differences in temperament, personality, and motivation.
_________ hypothesized about general intelligence as a single (g).
______: Theoretical general factor in intelligence that influences one's ability to learn in a wide variety of contexts.
________: suggested intelligences is a triarchic, compromising analytical, creative, and practical intelligences.
Triarchic theory of intelligence is a view of intelligence that
proponents argue that intelligent behavior arises from a balance between analytical, creative and practical abilities.
Research shows that there are clear differences in student's information processing abilities called ______
Crystallized intelligence is also known as ___________
What ability is associated with maturity is most influential in learning?
Listening to the ideas of others
Students with the same intelligence levels often approach classroom task and think about topics differently. These individual differences are due to ________ or ________ styles
Cognitive or Learning
__________ learners break down tasks into pieces and approach each piece separately
_________ learners approach a task as a single integrated project.
A set of procedures or safeguards that give students with disabilities and their parents/guardians extensive rights that include notice of meetings, opportunities to examine relevant records, impartial hearings and a review procedure
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
Legislation passed in 1974 that gives students and parents access to school records and limits others' access to those records
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
A federal statute, enacted in 1990, that has resulted in several grant programs to states in educating students with disabilities.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A written plan for a student with disabilities developed by a team of professionals (teachers, special educators, school psychologists) and the child's parents or caregivers. It is based on an evaluation by the child's multidisciplinary team and describes how the child is doing presently, what the child's learning needs are and what services the child will need
Inclusive education strives to educate a child with disabilities in his or her neighborhood school and in the regular education classroom as much as possible
Least Restrictive Enviornment (LRE)
The educational setting that allows students with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled peers
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
A civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities
When one constructs a casual explanation for failure or success
A feeling of mental discomfort in which new information conflicts with beliefs or previously learned information
Motivation that comes from external sources or from outside a person such as stickers or behavior charts
A low level of anxiety that actually can enhance student learning and performance on classroom assessments
A high level of anxiety that detracts from a student's ability to concentrate on the task or even the attempt the task out of fear and intense concern
Motivation that comes from within, or from inside a person such as providing students time to reflect on gials and achievements
A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision making
The goal is to weaken or extinguish an undesired behavior
The process or action of strengthening or reinforcing a behavior.
Involves a stimulus to increase a desired response
Involves removing a negative stimulus to increase a desired response
Suggests that humans have a basic need for autonomy when it comes to the courses their lives take
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Concrete Operations Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 7-11) of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.
Formal Operations Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.
In the theories of Jean Piaget: Attaching old schema to a new object.
Awareness of what is happening in your classroom.
What students must know after a lesson.
A test that evaluates each individual relative to a normative group.