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Flashcards in Praxis PLT Deck (69):
1

Behaviorism

thought process cannot be directly observed

3

Social Learning Theory

learn from others

4

self-regulation

take charge and direct their own actions

5

information processing theory

inside learners

6

constructivism

people create knowledge from observation and experiences

8

sociocultural theory

social, cultural, and historical contexts

9

classical conditioning

Pavlov's dogs salivate

10

operant conditioning

Skinner rats push lever for food

11

social learning theory

Bandura toy doll experiment

12

constructivism

Piaget's stages of cognitive development

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Assimilation

(Piaget constructivism) new experiences that is consistent with present scheme

14

Accommodation

(Piaget constructivism) new experiences that is not consistent with present scheme

15

Vygotsky

Sociocultural theory- Zone of proximal development w/scaffolding

16

Cognitive-development theory

Stages, Many are constructivist, Piaget and Kohlberg

17

Nativism

behaviors are biologically built in

18

Psychodynamic theory

focuses on personality development, early experiences can have significant effects on development

19

sensorimotor

0-2 years

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preoperational

2-7 years

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concrete operational

7-11 year

22

formal operational

11+

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Dev Infancy

Dev Birth-2

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Dev childhood

dev 2-6

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dev middle childhood

dev 6-10

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dev early adolescence

dev 10-14

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dev late adolescence

dev 14-18

28

Graphic Organizer

A visual aid to help organize information.

29

Student Centered

Learning target focused on the student and his or her performance.

30

Discovery Learning

A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.

31

Reflect, Revise, Re-Teach

Post teaching strategy to help fix problems and gain the best results for students.

32

Intentionality

Doing things for a purpose; teachers who use intentionality plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to achieve.

33

Self-Efficacy

One's belief in his or her own ability. (Bandura)

34

Formative Assessment

Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching.

35

Summative Assessment

Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit.

36

Informal Assessment

Ongoing classroom activities focused on individual achievements.

37

Formal Assessment

The process of systematically gathering the same kind of information from every student.

38

Developmentally Appropriate

Tasks that are suitable to a child given his/her age and interests.

39

IDEA

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

40

IEP

The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs.

41

FAPE

All children must receive a free, appropriate public education at public expense. Principle of IDEA.

42

LRE

Least Restrictive Environment.

43

Constructivism

Theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, knowledge from their experiences.

44

Transfer

Application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation.

45

Metacognition

The awareness of one's own cognitive process. (Thinking about thinking)

46

Zone of Proximal Development

In Vygotsky's theory, a range of tasks too difficult for a child to do alone but possible with the help of more-skilled partners.

47

Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.

48

Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.

49

Readiness

The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.

50

Bloom's Taxonomy

Knowledge > Comprehension > Application > Analysis > Synthesis > Evaluation

51

Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

52

Learned Helplessness

When one becomes dependant on others and beginning to think that you have no ability to do for yourself.

53

Operant Conditioning

(Skinner) A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punishment.

54

Direct Instruction

Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation.

55

State Standards

Explicit statements specifying what students are expected to learn.

56

Essential Question

A provocative question designed to engage student interest and guide inquiry into the important ideas in a field of study.

57

Backward Design

A process for designing a curriculum or unit by beginning with the end in mind and designing toward that end.

58

Scope and Sequence

Scope is what you are covering and sequence is when you are covering it.

59

Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

60

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results.

61

Stanine

Divide distribution of scores into 9 equal intervals (1=low, 9=high).

62

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954 - Ruled that racial segregation in public schools was not equal, so could not occur.

63

Sensorimotor Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

64

Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

65

Concrete Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 7-11) of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.

66

Formal Operations Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.

67

Assimilation

In the theories of Jean Piaget: Attaching old schema to a new object.

68

With-It-Ness

Awareness of what is happening in your classroom.

69

Objectives

What students must know after a lesson.

70

Norm-Referenced Test

A test that evaluates each individual relative to a normative group.

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Criterion-Referenced Test

A test that measures achievement according to a predetermined standard.