Flashcards in Praxis PLT Deck (69):
thought process cannot be directly observed
Social Learning Theory
learn from others
take charge and direct their own actions
information processing theory
people create knowledge from observation and experiences
social, cultural, and historical contexts
Pavlov's dogs salivate
Skinner rats push lever for food
social learning theory
Bandura toy doll experiment
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
(Piaget constructivism) new experiences that is consistent with present scheme
(Piaget constructivism) new experiences that is not consistent with present scheme
Sociocultural theory- Zone of proximal development w/scaffolding
Stages, Many are constructivist, Piaget and Kohlberg
behaviors are biologically built in
focuses on personality development, early experiences can have significant effects on development
dev middle childhood
dev early adolescence
dev late adolescence
A visual aid to help organize information.
Learning target focused on the student and his or her performance.
A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.
Reflect, Revise, Re-Teach
Post teaching strategy to help fix problems and gain the best results for students.
Doing things for a purpose; teachers who use intentionality plan their actions based on the outcomes they want to achieve.
One's belief in his or her own ability. (Bandura)
Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching.
Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit.
Ongoing classroom activities focused on individual achievements.
The process of systematically gathering the same kind of information from every student.
Tasks that are suitable to a child given his/her age and interests.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
The Individual Education Plan developed for each child eligible for special education, based on the child's unique needs.
All children must receive a free, appropriate public education at public expense. Principle of IDEA.
Least Restrictive Environment.
Theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, knowledge from their experiences.
Application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation.
The awareness of one's own cognitive process. (Thinking about thinking)
Zone of Proximal Development
In Vygotsky's theory, a range of tasks too difficult for a child to do alone but possible with the help of more-skilled partners.
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
Knowledge > Comprehension > Application > Analysis > Synthesis > Evaluation
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
When one becomes dependant on others and beginning to think that you have no ability to do for yourself.
(Skinner) A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punishment.
Teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation.
Explicit statements specifying what students are expected to learn.
A provocative question designed to engage student interest and guide inquiry into the important ideas in a field of study.
A process for designing a curriculum or unit by beginning with the end in mind and designing toward that end.
Scope and Sequence
Scope is what you are covering and sequence is when you are covering it.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
The extent to which a test yields consistent results.
Divide distribution of scores into 9 equal intervals (1=low, 9=high).
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954 - Ruled that racial segregation in public schools was not equal, so could not occur.
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Concrete Operations Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 7-11) of cognitive development, in which adult-like logic appears but is limited to concrete reality.
Formal Operations Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations.
In the theories of Jean Piaget: Attaching old schema to a new object.
Awareness of what is happening in your classroom.
What students must know after a lesson.
A test that evaluates each individual relative to a normative group.