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Anatomic pathology > Kidney > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney Deck (379)
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240

Rhabdoid tumor: Immunohistochemistry (1,1).

Positive: Epithelial markers.

Negative: INI-1.

241

Rhabdoid tumor: Electron microscopy.

Intermediate filaments make up the cytoplasmic inclusions.

242

Rhabdoid tumor: Mutation.

Inactivation of INI-1 (hSNF5) on chromosome 22.

243

Rhabdoid tumor: Prognosis.

Bad enough in older children; dismal in infants.

244

Metastasis to the kidney: Leading primary sites (5).

Lung.

Melanoma.

Gastrointestinal tract.

Gonads.

Other kidney.

245

Metastasis to the kidney: Location.

Cortex or medulla (or both).

246

Diseases of podocytes: Laboratory finding.

Proteinuria.

247

Minimal-change disease: Epidemiology (2).

Most patients are young children.

Adults can be affected, particularly secondary to nephrotoxins.

248

Minimal-change disease: Histopathology.

Normal by H&E and by special stains.

249

Minimal-change disease: Electron microscopy (4).

Loss of foot processes.

Extensive microvillous transformation.

Generally normal glomerular basement membrane.

No deposits.

250

Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis: Laboratory findings (2).

Nephrotic syndrome.

Azotemia.

251

Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis: Etiologies (5).

Idiopathic.

Genetic.

Immunologic.

Drugs.

HIV.

252

Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis: Electron microscopy (4).

Loss of foot processes.

Microvillous transformation.

Wrinkled glomerular basement membranes.

HIV-associated FSGS: Tubuloreticular inclusions may be seen.

253

Renal diseases of collagen: Affected parts of the nephron.

Glomerular basement membrane and/or mesangium.

254

Disorders of collagen, type IV (3).

Benign familial hematuria: Hematuria only; no progression.

Thin-basement-membrane disease: Hematuria; usually no progression.

Alport's syndrome: Hematuria and proteinuria.

255

Alport's syndrome: Additional manifestations (2).

X-linked type: Ocular abnormalities, sensorineural deafness.

256

Alport's syndrome: Electron-microscopic changes in the glomerular basement membrane (3).

Variations in thickness, sometimes with breaks.

"Basket-weave" alternation of dense and lucent areas.

Multilamellation and scalloping.

257

Alport's syndrome: Prognosis.

X-linked Alport's syndrome: End-stage renal disease in 90% of patients by age 40.

258

Alport's syndrome: Mutations (2).

Most cases of X-linked disease: COL4A5.

Some cases of AR or AD disease: COL4A3 or COL4A4.

259

Alport's syndrome: Histopathology of early lesion.

Normal.

260

Alport's syndrome: Histopathology of the glomerulus in a late lesion.

Irregular thickness of glomerular basement membrane.

Segmental solidification of the glomerular tuft (as in FSGS).

261

Alport's syndrome: Histopathology of the renal interstitium in a late lesion.

Fibrosis with tubular atrophy.

Foam cells.

Sclerosis and hyalinosis of arterioles.

262

Glomerular basement membrane: Normal thickness.

At least 200 nm.

263

Thrombotic microangiopathies: Components (2).

Endothelial injury.

Thrombosis.

264

Thrombotic microangiopathies: Examples (6).

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

TTP.

Malignant hypertension.

Renal crisis of scleroderma.

Antiphospholipid syndrome.

Iatrogenic thrombotic microangiopathy.

265

Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of acute glomerular disease (2).

Intracapillary thrombi.

Thickened walls of capillaries.

266

Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of chronic glomerular disease (2).

Membranoproliferative features with double contours ("tram-track" appearance).

Mesangial and global sclerosis.

267

Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of chronic interstitial disease (2).

Fibrosis.

Tubular atrophy.

268

Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of malignant hypertension (2).

"Onion-skin" appearance of blood vessels.

Extreme duplication of elastic lamina.

269

ANCA-mediated vasculitis of small vessels: Presentation (3).

Hematuria, proteinuria, rapid progression to renal failure.

Signs of systemic vasculitis.

Dermatological disease.