Flashcards in Kidney Deck (379)
Rhabdoid tumor: Immunohistochemistry (1,1).
Positive: Epithelial markers.
Rhabdoid tumor: Electron microscopy.
Intermediate filaments make up the cytoplasmic inclusions.
Rhabdoid tumor: Mutation.
Inactivation of INI-1 (hSNF5) on chromosome 22.
Rhabdoid tumor: Prognosis.
Bad enough in older children; dismal in infants.
Metastasis to the kidney: Leading primary sites (5).
Metastasis to the kidney: Location.
Cortex or medulla (or both).
Diseases of podocytes: Laboratory finding.
Minimal-change disease: Epidemiology (2).
Most patients are young children.
Adults can be affected, particularly secondary to nephrotoxins.
Minimal-change disease: Histopathology.
Normal by H&E and by special stains.
Minimal-change disease: Electron microscopy (4).
Loss of foot processes.
Extensive microvillous transformation.
Generally normal glomerular basement membrane.
Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis: Laboratory findings (2).
Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis: Etiologies (5).
Focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis: Electron microscopy (4).
Loss of foot processes.
Wrinkled glomerular basement membranes.
HIV-associated FSGS: Tubuloreticular inclusions may be seen.
Renal diseases of collagen: Affected parts of the nephron.
Glomerular basement membrane and/or mesangium.
Disorders of collagen, type IV (3).
Benign familial hematuria: Hematuria only; no progression.
Thin-basement-membrane disease: Hematuria; usually no progression.
Alport's syndrome: Hematuria and proteinuria.
Alport's syndrome: Additional manifestations (2).
X-linked type: Ocular abnormalities, sensorineural deafness.
Alport's syndrome: Electron-microscopic changes in the glomerular basement membrane (3).
Variations in thickness, sometimes with breaks.
"Basket-weave" alternation of dense and lucent areas.
Multilamellation and scalloping.
Alport's syndrome: Prognosis.
X-linked Alport's syndrome: End-stage renal disease in 90% of patients by age 40.
Alport's syndrome: Mutations (2).
Most cases of X-linked disease: COL4A5.
Some cases of AR or AD disease: COL4A3 or COL4A4.
Alport's syndrome: Histopathology of early lesion.
Alport's syndrome: Histopathology of the glomerulus in a late lesion.
Irregular thickness of glomerular basement membrane.
Segmental solidification of the glomerular tuft (as in FSGS).
Alport's syndrome: Histopathology of the renal interstitium in a late lesion.
Fibrosis with tubular atrophy.
Sclerosis and hyalinosis of arterioles.
Glomerular basement membrane: Normal thickness.
At least 200 nm.
Thrombotic microangiopathies: Components (2).
Thrombotic microangiopathies: Examples (6).
Renal crisis of scleroderma.
Iatrogenic thrombotic microangiopathy.
Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of acute glomerular disease (2).
Thickened walls of capillaries.
Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of chronic glomerular disease (2).
Membranoproliferative features with double contours ("tram-track" appearance).
Mesangial and global sclerosis.
Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of chronic interstitial disease (2).
Thrombotic microangiopathies: Histopathology of malignant hypertension (2).
"Onion-skin" appearance of blood vessels.
Extreme duplication of elastic lamina.