Languedoc/Roussillon and Provence Flashcards Preview

WSET ® Level 3 Wine > Languedoc/Roussillon and Provence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Languedoc/Roussillon and Provence Deck (30)
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1
Q

What is the climate of the majority of Southern France?

A

Mediterranean

2
Q

What is the greatest climatic challenge Southern France faces?

A

Drought

Low rainfall in this warm, dry climate of Southern France can lead to drought, although the area experiences less pressure from fungal disease.

3
Q

The rosé wines of Provence are typically made using what method?

A

Direct Press

Unlike the saignée method which allows for production of both a red and a rosé wine, the direct press method will only produce one pale, rosé wine.

4
Q

What are some of the major red/black grape varieties used in Provence?

A
  • Mourvèdre (predominant)
  • Grenache
  • Syrah
  • Carignan
  • Cinsault
5
Q

What are some of the major white grape varieties used in southern France?

Which two are the most planted?

A
  • Chardonnay
  • Sauvignon Blanc
  • Viognier
  • Muscat
  • Grenache Blanc
  • Picpoul
  • Mauzac
  • Maccabeu
  • Rolle
  • Clairette
6
Q

What is the largest appellation in Provence?

A

Côtes de Provence AOP

The Côtes de Provence AOP is the largest appellation both in terms of production and geographic size.

7
Q

What is the primary red/black grape of the Bandol AOP?

A

Mourvèdre

Mourvèdre’s small berries and thick skins give Bandol AOP wines intense color and high tannins.

Mourvèdre is widely planted in Bandol because of the region’s south-facing slopes. This aspect gives the grapes enough warmth and sun exposure to fully ripen to produce dark, full-bodied red wines.

8
Q

What is unique about the phylloxera crisis of the late 1800s in the Languedoc region?

A

Languedoc was the first region in France replanted with American rootstocks and thus was the first region to be rebuilt after the phylloxera crisis.

9
Q

Picpoul de Pinet AOP:

  1. What is the grape?
  2. Quickly describe it.
A
  1. Grape: Picpoul
  2. Picpoul makes wines naturally high in acidity with citrus notes and green fruit flavors.
10
Q

Minervois AOP is known for making what color wines based on what grape variety?

A

Red blends based on Syrah.

11
Q

Which subregion of Minervois is considered to produce the best wines of the appellation?

A

La Livinière

The wines from this subregion are considered so good, Minervois-La Livinière has its own AOP.

12
Q

Is Minervois on the coast or is it inland?

How does its location affect the wines made there?

A

Inland

Wines made in Minervois vary in quality due to how the AOP is situated: on slopes of the Massif Central, which means there is altitude variation, exposure differences, and soil composition differences.

13
Q

Corbières AOP wines are mainly made from what grape variety?

A

Carignan

14
Q

Which AOP of the Languedoc is the largest geographically?

A

Corbières AOP

At 13,500 hectares (33,000 acres) Corbières is the fourth largest AOP in France by total area.

15
Q

Corbières is subdivided into 11 subregions. Which is considered the best subregion?

A

Boutenac, which is its own AOP.

16
Q

The inland vineyards of Corbières AOP are cooled by which wind?

A

Tramontane

17
Q

Which quality level of wine is produced more in the Languedoc-Roussillon region than any other region in France?:

  • PDO
  • IGP
  • Premier Cru
  • Grand Cru
A

IGP (Indication Géographique Protégée)

The regional appellation of Pays d’Oc IGP covers all the départements which make up Languedoc-Roussillon and is a vital part of the economy in Southern France.

18
Q

What factors are attributable to the success of the Pays d’Oc IGP?

A
  • Warm, sunny climate - grapes always fully ripen
  • Fewer regulations
    • many different grapes planted
    • wines labeled by grape
    • winemakers can experiment with blends and styles
    • affordable
19
Q

What are the département(s) within Languedoc?

What are the département(s) within Roussillon?

A

Départements in Languedoc

  • Aude
  • Gard
  • Hérault

Département in Roussillon

  • Pyrénées-Orientales
20
Q

What generic AOP covers the Languedoc and Roussillon wine regions?

A

Languedoc AOP

21
Q

What are the 4 most widely used red/black grape varieties of the Languedoc AOP?

A
  • Carignan
  • Grenache
  • Syrah
  • Mourvèdre
22
Q

The most famous wines of Roussillon are mostly what style of wine?

A

Vins Doux Naturels (VDN, which are sweet, fortified wines)

Still red table wines are also made in Roussillon and they’re typically full bodied and oaked.

23
Q

Côtes du Roussillon and Côtes du Roussillon Villages are known for what style of wines?

What’s the geography like in these appellations?

A

Still, dry red wines.

Geography is rugged and hilly, and both produce flavorful, concentrated reds.

Côtes du Roussillon Villages generally produces better wines.

24
Q

Where is Fitou AOP?

Describe the two distinct areas of Fitou.

A

Fitou is just north of Côtes du Roussillon Villages.

Area 1: warm coastal vineyards that make full-bodied reds.

Area 2: cooler inland vineyards with altitude that make lighter reds.

25
Q

What is the name of the wind that has a major affect on the Roussillon winegrowing region?

A

The Tramontane, which is a strong, dry, cold wind from the north/northwest.

26
Q

How does the Tramontane impact the Roussillon region?

A

The Tramontane wind significantly reduces the region’s humidity, lowering the risk of fungal infections and rot.

27
Q

Does the Mistral affect Provence, Languedoc-Roussillon, or both?

A

The Mistral affects Languedoc-Roussillon as it blows through the Rhône Valley down into these regions.

The Mistral does NOT affect Provence as Provence has prominent hills that protect the region.

28
Q

What are the similarities and differences between the Mistral and the Tramontane?

A

In sum, the two winds are very similar but they are channelled differently.

Similarities

  • both are strong, dry, cold winds
  • both reduce fungal disease pressure
  • both flow out towards the Mediterranean

Differences

  • Mistral flows through the Rhône Valley between the Alps and the Massif Central;
  • Tramontane is funneled between a gap in the Pyrénées and the Massif Central.
29
Q

What are some of the modern winemaking techniques that have generally improved the wines coming out of the South of France?

A
  1. Cellar hygiene
  2. Temperature control
  3. Modern equipment
  4. Semi-carbonic maceration, esp. for Carignan
  5. Prudent use of new and old oak
30
Q

Name the international varieties planted and used in the production of Pays d’Oc IGP wines.

A
  1. Cabernet Sauvignon
  2. Merlot
  3. Chardonnay
  4. Sauvignon Blanc

IGP wines can be varietally labeled, which makes them recognizable across many markets.