Lecture 1 materials - bones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 materials - bones Deck (64):
1

What is the median plane?

Mid-sagittal, perpendicular mid-line

2

What is sagittal plane?

Dividing something in to left and right

3

What is transverse plane?

Perpendicular to mass

4

What is dorsal plane?

Dividing something to top and bottom

5

What are directional terms for a hollow structure?

Internal vs External or
Inner vs Outer

6

What are directional terms for a solid structure?

Superficial vs deep

7

When are palmar and plantar used?

After proximal most point on the carpus/tarsus

8

What does axial mean?

Facing towards axis (inside of toes point towards bone)

9

What does abaxial mean?

Facing away from axis (outside of toes point away from bone)

10

Name the regions of the forelimb

Shoulder, brachium, antebrachium, manus

11

Name the regions of the hindlimb

Hip, thigh, crus (stifle), pes

12

What are the flexor surfaces of the forelimb?

Back, back, front, back

13

What are the flexor surfaces of the hindlimb?

Back, front, back, front

14

What does flexion mean?

The points where the skin touches at a joint

15

What does extension mean?

The parts of the skin opposite the flexors of the joint

16

What is circumduction?

Elliptical rotation

17

What is supination?

Lateral rotation

18

What is pronation?

Medial rotation

19

Name the main functions of bone

Levers for muscle action, protection of vital organs, support

20

Name all functions of bone

Levers for muscle action, support, protection of organs, mineral depots, site of hematopoesis, storage of fat

21

Describe a long bone

Significantly longer in 1 dimension, found only in limbs, act as levers

Example: Humerus, femur

22

Describe a short bone

Equidimensional, fund only in limbs, used for complex movement

Example: Carpal and tarsal bones

23

Describe flat bones

Reduced in one dimension, site of hematopoesis

Example: Scapula, ribs, some skull bones

24

Describe irregular bones

Irregular bones have jutting processes

Example: vertebrae, pelvis

25

Describe sesamoid bones

Seed shaped, imbedded within tendons, reduce friction between tendon and underlying bone

Example: Patella

26

Describe appendicular skeleton

Bones of the limbs

27

Describe axial skeleton

Bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebral column

28

Describe heterotopic skeleton

Unusual bones, os penis in dog, os cordis in ox. Os rostral in pig

29

Describe compact bone

Dense, cortical bone

30

Describe spongy bone

Made from trabecular or cancellous bone, lies within the 2 compact layers of flat bones

Found in extremities of long bones and forms internal substance of short and irregular bones.

31

Describe bone marrow

Found in medullary cavity of long bones and in the spaces of spongy bone

32

What is red marrow?

Hematopoetic marrow, glows red

33

What is yellow marrow?

Fatty marrow

34

Describe endochondral bone

Bone progressively replaces cartilage. Most bones are endochondral

35

Describe intramembranous bone

Bones form within a sheet of connective tissue (intramembranous ossification).

Bones of the face and skull

36

What is the purpose of the cartilage in endochondral ossification?

Cartilage serves as matrix for bone development.

37

What are primary and secondary centers of ossification?

Primary: bone has replaced cartilage at these centers before birth (shaft of bones)

Secondary: bone replaces this crtilage with age (ends of bone)

38

What is an epiphyseal plate?

Cartilaginous plate that remains between ossification centers until the bone is mature.

39

How do bones elongate?

Continuous cartilage production and resorption, and progressive ossification at epiphyseal plates elongates bone during growth

40

Describe intramembranous ossification

No cartilage model, bone forms directly within connective tissue.

This occurs under the periosteum as bones grow in diameter

41

Do mot bones use both intramembranous and endochondral ossification?

Yes, endochondral for elongation and intramembranous for diameter growth

42

What is the diaphysis

Shaft of the long bone

43

What is the epiphysis

End of the long bone

44

What is the physis

Growing cartilage plate in immature bone

45

What is the metaphysis

Flared segment of bone located on the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate (diameter)

46

What is an apophysis

Bony projection that develops from an independent center of ossification

47

What is periosteum?

A layer of vascular connective tissue that is superficial to the cortex and envelops most bones except at articular surfaces

48

What is endosteum?

A layer of connective tissue that is deep to the cortex and line the medullary cavity

49

What is the medullary cavity?

Central cavity of the bone shaft where red and yellow marrow are stored

50

What is the cortex?

The hard outer layer of bone, cortical bone

51

Describe pneumatic bones

Air-filled spaces. In mammals these are in the skull and contain the paranasal sinuses.

In birds, they are also found outside the skull and communicate with the respiratory system

52

Do sinuses grow with age?

Yes

53

What is the nutrient source for bones?

Nutrient artery that passes through the nutrient foramen

Nutrient artery helps heal broken bones

54

What is Legg-Calve-Perthes disease?

In developing bone, the epiphyseal artery does not penetrate growth plate and blood cannot get to the femoral head leading to bone necrosis and death

55

What is the significance of the nutrient foramina

Located in the middle of diaphysis, may resemble fracture on radiograph.

Often where signs of panosteitis (leg bone inflammation) are first detectable

56

Describe the vertebrae

two pedicles make the sides, two lamina make the spinous process

Vertebral foramen is between body and lamina, and form the vertebral canal

57

How many articulations on a typical thoracic vertebrae?

12

58

What is the intervertebral foramen

Space made by 2 vertebral notches, nerves exit

59

How many times does the rib articulate with the vertebrae?

Usually 3, but only 2 after T10

60

Name the number of each vertebrae

Cervical: 7
Thoracic: 13
Lumbar: 7
Sacral: 3
Caudal: 20

61

What is special about C7?

C7 has caudal costal fovae for rib 1 and does not have transverse foramina

62

What is the anticlincal vertebrae?

T11, spinous processes begin to lean cranially

63

What begins at T11?

Ribs begin to articulate only on cranial costal fovae. Thoracic vertebrae T11 - T13 only have 10 articulations because no caudal costal fovea

64

Where do the nerves exit from the sacrum?

Pelvic sacral foramina