Flashcards in Lecture 1 materials - bones Deck (64):
What is the median plane?
Mid-sagittal, perpendicular mid-line
What is sagittal plane?
Dividing something in to left and right
What is transverse plane?
Perpendicular to mass
What is dorsal plane?
Dividing something to top and bottom
What are directional terms for a hollow structure?
Internal vs External or
Inner vs Outer
What are directional terms for a solid structure?
Superficial vs deep
When are palmar and plantar used?
After proximal most point on the carpus/tarsus
What does axial mean?
Facing towards axis (inside of toes point towards bone)
What does abaxial mean?
Facing away from axis (outside of toes point away from bone)
Name the regions of the forelimb
Shoulder, brachium, antebrachium, manus
Name the regions of the hindlimb
Hip, thigh, crus (stifle), pes
What are the flexor surfaces of the forelimb?
Back, back, front, back
What are the flexor surfaces of the hindlimb?
Back, front, back, front
What does flexion mean?
The points where the skin touches at a joint
What does extension mean?
The parts of the skin opposite the flexors of the joint
What is circumduction?
What is supination?
What is pronation?
Name the main functions of bone
Levers for muscle action, protection of vital organs, support
Name all functions of bone
Levers for muscle action, support, protection of organs, mineral depots, site of hematopoesis, storage of fat
Describe a long bone
Significantly longer in 1 dimension, found only in limbs, act as levers
Example: Humerus, femur
Describe a short bone
Equidimensional, fund only in limbs, used for complex movement
Example: Carpal and tarsal bones
Describe flat bones
Reduced in one dimension, site of hematopoesis
Example: Scapula, ribs, some skull bones
Describe irregular bones
Irregular bones have jutting processes
Example: vertebrae, pelvis
Describe sesamoid bones
Seed shaped, imbedded within tendons, reduce friction between tendon and underlying bone
Describe appendicular skeleton
Bones of the limbs
Describe axial skeleton
Bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebral column
Describe heterotopic skeleton
Unusual bones, os penis in dog, os cordis in ox. Os rostral in pig
Describe compact bone
Dense, cortical bone
Describe spongy bone
Made from trabecular or cancellous bone, lies within the 2 compact layers of flat bones
Found in extremities of long bones and forms internal substance of short and irregular bones.
Describe bone marrow
Found in medullary cavity of long bones and in the spaces of spongy bone
What is red marrow?
Hematopoetic marrow, glows red
What is yellow marrow?
Describe endochondral bone
Bone progressively replaces cartilage. Most bones are endochondral
Describe intramembranous bone
Bones form within a sheet of connective tissue (intramembranous ossification).
Bones of the face and skull
What is the purpose of the cartilage in endochondral ossification?
Cartilage serves as matrix for bone development.
What are primary and secondary centers of ossification?
Primary: bone has replaced cartilage at these centers before birth (shaft of bones)
Secondary: bone replaces this crtilage with age (ends of bone)
What is an epiphyseal plate?
Cartilaginous plate that remains between ossification centers until the bone is mature.
How do bones elongate?
Continuous cartilage production and resorption, and progressive ossification at epiphyseal plates elongates bone during growth
Describe intramembranous ossification
No cartilage model, bone forms directly within connective tissue.
This occurs under the periosteum as bones grow in diameter
Do mot bones use both intramembranous and endochondral ossification?
Yes, endochondral for elongation and intramembranous for diameter growth
What is the diaphysis
Shaft of the long bone
What is the epiphysis
End of the long bone
What is the physis
Growing cartilage plate in immature bone
What is the metaphysis
Flared segment of bone located on the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate (diameter)
What is an apophysis
Bony projection that develops from an independent center of ossification
What is periosteum?
A layer of vascular connective tissue that is superficial to the cortex and envelops most bones except at articular surfaces
What is endosteum?
A layer of connective tissue that is deep to the cortex and line the medullary cavity
What is the medullary cavity?
Central cavity of the bone shaft where red and yellow marrow are stored
What is the cortex?
The hard outer layer of bone, cortical bone
Describe pneumatic bones
Air-filled spaces. In mammals these are in the skull and contain the paranasal sinuses.
In birds, they are also found outside the skull and communicate with the respiratory system
Do sinuses grow with age?
What is the nutrient source for bones?
Nutrient artery that passes through the nutrient foramen
Nutrient artery helps heal broken bones
What is Legg-Calve-Perthes disease?
In developing bone, the epiphyseal artery does not penetrate growth plate and blood cannot get to the femoral head leading to bone necrosis and death
What is the significance of the nutrient foramina
Located in the middle of diaphysis, may resemble fracture on radiograph.
Often where signs of panosteitis (leg bone inflammation) are first detectable
Describe the vertebrae
two pedicles make the sides, two lamina make the spinous process
Vertebral foramen is between body and lamina, and form the vertebral canal
How many articulations on a typical thoracic vertebrae?
What is the intervertebral foramen
Space made by 2 vertebral notches, nerves exit
How many times does the rib articulate with the vertebrae?
Usually 3, but only 2 after T10
Name the number of each vertebrae
What is special about C7?
C7 has caudal costal fovae for rib 1 and does not have transverse foramina
What is the anticlincal vertebrae?
T11, spinous processes begin to lean cranially
What begins at T11?
Ribs begin to articulate only on cranial costal fovae. Thoracic vertebrae T11 - T13 only have 10 articulations because no caudal costal fovea