Flashcards in Lecture 1 materials - bones Deck (64)
What is the median plane?
Mid-sagittal, perpendicular mid-line
What is sagittal plane?
Dividing something in to left and right
What is transverse plane?
Perpendicular to mass
What is dorsal plane?
Dividing something to top and bottom
What are directional terms for a hollow structure?
Internal vs External or
Inner vs Outer
What are directional terms for a solid structure?
Superficial vs deep
When are palmar and plantar used?
After proximal most point on the carpus/tarsus
What does axial mean?
Facing towards axis (inside of toes point towards bone)
What does abaxial mean?
Facing away from axis (outside of toes point away from bone)
Name the regions of the forelimb
Shoulder, brachium, antebrachium, manus
Name the regions of the hindlimb
Hip, thigh, crus (stifle), pes
What are the flexor surfaces of the forelimb?
Back, back, front, back
What are the flexor surfaces of the hindlimb?
Back, front, back, front
What does flexion mean?
The points where the skin touches at a joint
What does extension mean?
The parts of the skin opposite the flexors of the joint
What is circumduction?
What is supination?
What is pronation?
Name the main functions of bone
Levers for muscle action, protection of vital organs, support
Name all functions of bone
Levers for muscle action, support, protection of organs, mineral depots, site of hematopoesis, storage of fat
Describe a long bone
Significantly longer in 1 dimension, found only in limbs, act as levers
Example: Humerus, femur
Describe a short bone
Equidimensional, fund only in limbs, used for complex movement
Example: Carpal and tarsal bones
Describe flat bones
Reduced in one dimension, site of hematopoesis
Example: Scapula, ribs, some skull bones
Describe irregular bones
Irregular bones have jutting processes
Example: vertebrae, pelvis
Describe sesamoid bones
Seed shaped, imbedded within tendons, reduce friction between tendon and underlying bone
Describe appendicular skeleton
Bones of the limbs
Describe axial skeleton
Bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebral column
Describe heterotopic skeleton
Unusual bones, os penis in dog, os cordis in ox. Os rostral in pig
Describe compact bone
Dense, cortical bone