Lecture 12 - Regenerative & Biological Therapy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 12 - Regenerative & Biological Therapy Deck (69)
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1

What is regenerative medicine?

Branch of translational research which deals with the process of replacing, engineering, or regenerating human cells, tissues, or organs to restore normal function.

2

Do products currently available in veterinary medicine actually "regenerate" tissue during healing?

Usually, no.

Remains unclear or unproven in many applications.

3

What are most currently available regenerative therapies aimed at?

1. Reducing inflammation

2. Promoting neovascularization

3. Modulating and promoting an anabolic local environment during healing.

4

What are currently available regenerative therapies NOT aimed at?

Direct regeneration of tissue via direct inoculation of a stem cell.

5

What is a better term than "regenerative therapies" for the therapies that are currently available?

biological therapies

6

Predominant indication in small and large animal medicine is the treatment of _____.

musculoskeletal disease

7

What 2 aspects of musculoskeletal disease are biological therapies most used for?

1. Joint/osteoarthritis

2. Tendon and ligament injury

8

What additional areas have ongoing research in veterinary medicine?

1. Pulmonary repair

2. Oncology and cancer therapy

3. Dermatology

9

What does IRAP mean/stand for?

Autologous Conditioned Serum

10

What does PRP stand for?

Platelet Rich Plasma

11

What does "pro-stride" mean?

Autologous Protein Solution

12

What are 4 locations from where we can get stem cells?

1. Bone marrow aspirate concentrate

2. Bone marrow-derived MSCs

3. Fat/Vascular Stromal Fraction MSCs

4. Autologous vs. Allogenic

13

What is autologous conditioned serum (IRAP) widely used for?

Equine sports medicine (for the last 15-20 years)

14

What does IRAP mainly use in its MOA?

Cytokines

15

What are cytokines and what are the 2 general types?

Proteins within mammals that are secreted by various cells of the immune system that influence an effect on another cell.

Types = Pro-inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory

16

What is the most common and central pro-inflammatory cytokine?

IL-1

17

How is IL-1 involved in osteoarthritis?

It is upregulated in the joint and increases proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases) which degrade type-2 collagen in articular cartilage.

18

What is one anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in IRAP and what is another name for it?

IL1-ra; AKA IRAP protein

19

Where does IL1-ra originate from?

monocyte cells in the blood

20

What does IL1-ra bind to and why?

Binds to IL-1 receptors to block cellular signaling of inflammation.

21

What does IL1-ra circulating in the blood do?

Normal amounts of circulating IL1-ra helps provide balance between anabolic (build/restore) and catabolic (breakdown) processes in the body.

22

IRAP binds to _____, preventing _____ binding which would cause _____.

IL-1 receptors, IL-1, inflammation

23

How do we capitalize on IL1-ra as a biological therapy?

Collect whole blood from animal. expose it to select surfaces to stimulate monocytes to secrete IL1-ra.

24

How can blood monocytes be stimulated to secrete IL1-ra?

1. Borosilicate or chromium sulfate glass beads in a syringe

2. Held at body temp (37.5 deg C) for up to 24 hours

3. Centrifuged and serum aspirated off

25

How much more IL1-ra vs. IL-1 does manipulated serum have at 24 hours (i.e. what is the IL1-ra to IL-1 ratio)?

6-10x more IL1-ra vs. IL1

26

How can autologous conditioned serum be used to influence inflammation?

It can be aseptically injected back into a joint compartment.

27

How often are autologous conditioned serum injections repeated?

Every 2 weeks for 3-4 treatments

28

What can be done with leftover IRAP serum?

Can be frozen for future use

29

Platelets are most commonly associated with _____ and _____. They are also a rich source of _____.

clotting, hemostasis, growth factors

30

What are growth factors?

Proteins that stimulate growth, proliferation, healing, or cellular differentiation in cells.