What are the 2 types of bone healing?
Primary and secondary
In primary healing, bone forms _____.
What are the units of bone that are involved in remodeling?
What is secondary healing?
Intramembranous or endochondral ossification
What forms in secondary healing and what is it made of?
Secondary bone healing requires _____.
blood supply (intramedullary or temporary extra-osseous)
What is a graft
Transfer of living tissue
What is an autograft?
Tissue from the same individual
What is an allograft?
Same spp, different individual
What is a xenograft?
What types of bones are used for grafts?
Cancellous, cortical, combo
What are 5 examples of things that can have a bone graft?
1. Craniofacial reconstruction
2. Cysts, non-unions, intercalary defects
3. Spine fusion
4. Segmental defect repair
5. Prosthetic implant fixation
What is osteogenesis?
Transfer of living cells
What is osteoinduction?
Induction of cells to become bone
What is osteoconduction?
Scaffold for bone cells
What is osteopromotion?
improving mechanical or biological moevement
What is the "gold standard" of bone replacement?
Autogenous cancellous bone
What are the 4 aspects of bone regeneration?
Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, osteopromotion
What is the morbidity of using autogenous cancellous bone as a graft?
low in animals
What are indications to use an autogenous cancellous bone graft?
Bone defects, slow healing fractures, non-unions/delayed unions, open fractures with bone loss, spinal fusions, arthrodesis, bone cysts
What are harvest locations?
Proximal humerus, iliac wing, distal femur, proximal tibia, rib
What are some substitutes to grafts?
Calcium phosphates, bioactive glass, coral, calcium sulfate, demineralized bone matrix