Lecture 26 - LA Fracture Repair Flashcards Preview

Intro to Surgery > Lecture 26 - LA Fracture Repair > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 26 - LA Fracture Repair Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

Fractures that are not appropriately coapted can result in what 5 things?

  1. Closed fractures becoming open
  2. Hairline fracture lines turning into comminuted, catastrophic fractures
  3. Eburnation of bone edges
  4. Lack of preservation of blood supply
  5. Increased pain and anxiety for the patient

2

When coapting, where should the fixation method never be ended?

In the middle of a long bone/diaphysis

3

Why should the fixation method never be ended in the middle of a long bone?

Creates stress point and bending force that can lead to fracture;

Want to stabilize one joint above and one below the fracture

4

Stability occurs on ___ planes.

2

5

What are the types of coaptation?

PCV splints, cast material, pre-made splints, wood

6

What are advantages to LA orthopedics?

  1. Ruminants easily callus
  2. Some fractures are amenable to standing repair
  3. Some fractures will heal conservatively
  4. Neonates will heal due to growing mode of bone, good vascularity, and smaller weight

7

What are disadvantages of LA orthopedics?

  1. Weight
  2. Athletic career
  3. Strength of muscles (difficult to reduce fracture bc of strength of muscles that need to be counteracted in sx)
  4. Cost

8

What are the 4 most commonly used fixation methods in LA?

  1. Cast/External coaptation
  2. Transfixation pin cast
  3. Lag screw fixation
  4. Bone plate internal fixation (locking and non-locking)

9

What 4 methods of fracture stabilization are not applied in LA but can be used in select cases for young, smaller animals?

  1. External skeletal fixator
  2. Intramedullary pin
  3. Interlocking nail
  4. Cerclage wire/tension band

10

T/F: Cast management alone is inadequate in equines

True

11

What LA spp do casts have a strong use in?

Bovine and small ruminants

12

What is this?

Thomas Schroeder splint

13

A transfixation pin cast is a hybrind bt a _____ and an _____.

cast, external skeletal fixator

14

How many Steinmann pins are inserted above the fx site in a transfixation pin cast?

2-4

15

What does a transfixation cast allow for?

Allows biomechanical forces from the weight of the animal to be transferred from the pins in the bone into the cast

16

What are a couple of complications that can result from a transfixation pin cast?

  1. Pin ring-sequestration --> loosening and pain
  2. Fx of bone through the pin-bone interface

17

What are 4 uses for a trans`fixation pin cast?

  1. Increasing stability of external coaptation yet remaining economical
  2. Stabilization of complicated locations
  3. Comminuted fractures that are not reconstructable
  4. Open fractures where implants at the fracture site are contra-indicated

18

What is lag screw fixation?

Method of placing a cortical bone screw such that it compresses the two "sides" of bone it interfaces

19

What type of bone healing do lag screws promote?

Primary

20

What are the two types of holes drilled for a lag screw and which is larger?

Glide hole (larger)

Thread hole

21

What is the strongest method of fixation available?

bone plate fixation

22

In adult horses and larger long bones (cannon, tibia, radius), what type of fixation/what degree is mandatory?

Double plate fixation at 90 degrees

23

What are the two global types of bone plates?

Traditional (limited contact - dynamic compression)

Novel (locking compression)

24

What two fixation methods are used in the management of jaw fractures?

External fixator and cerclage wire to create "braces"

25

What is a huge complication in recovery from orthopedic surgery in LA?

The animal wakes up, freaks out, and bends/breaks the implants/further fractures the bone after a long and difficult surgery

26

What can be done to minimize recovery complications in fracture repair?

Standing fracture repair and standing implant removal

27

What is implant failure a result of?

Lack of stability in the original repaid

28

What is the biggest disappointment in LA ortho surgery?

infection

29

What fractures are at higher risk for infection?

Open fractures

30

What do bacteria create on the surface of implants?

biofilm