What is a fracture?
Continuity of bone is broken
What is a simple fracture?
One line through bone - fracture of only the bone;
No penetration through the skin
What is a compound fracture?
Fracture in which a broken piece of bone pierces the skin
What is a comminuted fracture?
Breaking of bone into 2+ pieces
What is coaptation?
Joining or reuniting of 2 surfaces;
Often in terms of a splint designed to immobilize a fracture
What are some signs used to diagnose a fracture?
1. Severe lameness
2. Acute onset of clinical signs
4. Pain on palpation
5. History of trauma
6. Visualize bone
How can shock be dealt with?
IVF and systemic support
(May have other life-threatening injuries such as a diaphragmatic hernia)
How should fractures be evaluated in small animals?
Using heavy sedation or anesthesia
Why should sedation to evaluate a fracture in horses be used with care?
Agitated horses override drug effects; may be ataxic (don't want the horse to lay down)
What drug should not be used for front limb fracture in horses?
What are the 5 goals of fracture stabilization?
1. Prevent soft tissue damage
2. Decrease patient's anxiety
3. Minimize eburnation
4. Keep fracture closed
5. Protect blood vessels and nerves from stretching
Why is minimizing eburnation important?
Eburnation occurs when jagged bone edges rub against each other and become smooth - makes it harder to put fractured edges back together if they are rounded
What are the 3 goals of first aid?
1. Assessment of the animal
2. Communication (diagnostics, prognosis)
3. Create plan (hospital/farm management, referral)
Prognosis for equine fractures is _____ based on _____.
How much does repair of long bone fractures in equines cost?
$5,000 to $10,000
When is prognosis of an equine fracture decreased?
With weight and compound fracture
How much does an adult horse weigh? Foal?
Adult = 1000-1500#
Foal/juvenile = 100-500#
What response do horses usually have when a fracture occurs?
Flight - will continue to try to use fractured limb
Small animal fracture prognosis can be _____ to _____.
What does small weight allow for with SA fractures?
Internal fixation, external fixation, casting, amputation
What 5 things should be considered when thinking about euthanizing an animal with a fracture?
1. Responsibility to patient
2. Responsibility to client
3. Equine insurance
4. AVMA guidelines
5. AAEP guidelines
How can equine fractures be stabilized?
External coaptation - bandage, splint, cast
What is elastikon used for?
Helps seal top/bottom, holds bandages up
What are the steps to splinting a fracture?
1. Place RJ or modified RJ bandage (if open fracture start antimicrobials and wound treatment)
2. Attach splint on outside of bandage (elastikon, vetrap)
3. Make sure splint ends won't abrade patient
Where should a fracture be immobilized with a splint?
Joint above and below the fracture
Why should there be lots of padding in a splint?
Splint needs to be tight to limit motion
When would you use 2 splints together and at what orientation?
With a comminuted fracture; 90 degrees to each other
What type of splints are used in SA?
Spoon, quick splint, casting tape
What type of splints are used in equines?
1. Homemade (PVC, wood, twitch/broom handle, casting material)
2. Commercial (Kimzey)
What materials are used in casts?
1. Small bandage
3. Felt padding
4. Fiberglass casting tape