What drug is used to sedate cattle? Goats?
Cattle - Xylazine Goats - Diazepam or Midazolam
True or False: 10 mg/kg of lidocaine is toxic to goats
Name two NSAID drugs available for food animals.
Meloxicam and Flunixin meglumine
Why do we castrate?
Behavior modification, prevent unintended births, improve carcass quality, and pathologic processes
What are the basic means of castration?
hormonal, chemical, and physical (non-surgical and surgical)
Describe the process of surgical castration of camelids using a newberry knife.
1. Give ketamine/xylazine/butorphanol mixture 2. Give lidocaine locally 3. Use either the newberry knife or a blade at the junction of the middle and distal third of the testicles
Post-castration, what should you check for?
bleeding, stretch your incision, look for swelling, infection, hemorrhage, and tetanus
True or False: It is best to wait until cattle are over 6 months of age to dehorn
false - it is best if they are under 6 weeks of age
When should you utilize paste disbudding?
at less than 48 hours of age (before feeding)
How long to you apply a cautery/hot iron to calves, male goats, and female goats?
calves: 5-7 seconds male goats: 5 seconds female goat: 3 seconds
What is a potential complication of using a Barnes dehorner?
you can expose the sinus, causing sinusitis
What dehorner is used in older cattle?
What complications are associated with the keystone dehorner?
sinusitis, surgical site infection, hemorrhage, and improperly performed procedures
What is the most common neoplasia of the bovine eye?
squamous cell carcinoma
Aside from neoplasia, what are some indications for enucleation?
infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, panophthalmitis, and trauma
Where can you apply lidocaine for enucleation blocks?
retrobulbar and four point
What are the potential complications of enucleation?
hemorrhage, infection, dehiscence, recurrence of disease, and convulsions if you inject lidocaine into the meningeal reflection optic nerve
What are some indications for digit amputation?
injury, septic arthritis to the distal interphalangeal joint, severe foot rot and secondary osteomyelitis, and severe phalangeal fractures
When should you not amputate a digit?
sepsis of the fetlock joint or involvement of both digits on the same foot
While there is a rapid recovery and it is fairly cheap to amputate a digit, what are potential disadvantages to digit amputation?
early removal from herd because of early breakdown and lower market value
What antibiotics can you give to prevent infection after digit amputation?
Ampicillin-sulbactam, ampicillin, florfenicol
What do we use to make an angled cut for ampuation of a claw?
Obstetric wire between proximal and distal interphalangeal ligament
What can help an umbilical hernia heal post-surgery?
a hernia belt
What can be used to help hernia healing in non-surgical cases?
hernial clamps, elastrator bands, and the hernia belt
What are the two types of hernia repairs?
open and closed
What instrument does minimally invasive surgery usually utilize?
Not sure why this is important... but who used a cytoscope to examine the abdominal cavity of dogs?
Why do we choose to do minimally invasive surgery?
less blood loss, less scarring, shorter hospital stays, decreased pain, and earlier resumptions of new activities
What are some cons to minimally invasive surgeries?
operations are longer, may cost more, need extra training, may not see all of the lesions, higher mortality
Identify some of the applications for minimally invasive surgery.
laparoscopy, arthroscopy, endoscopy, cytoscopy, hysteroscopy, biopsies, orthopedics