Lecture 24 - Equine Lameness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 24 - Equine Lameness Deck (46)
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1

What are the 4 normal gaits for an average horse?

Walk, trot, canter, gallop

2

What is a walk?

2-3 limbs on the ground at any time;

asymmetrical gait

Hind limbs land on hoof prints of previous steps

3

What is a trot?

Symmetrical, 2-beated gait;

Used most commonly for lameness evaluation;

Contralateral limb pairs move (HL with FR, HR with FL)

There is a moment of suspension

4

What is the difference between a trot and a jog?

Basically the same thing;

Trot = English, more bouncy

Jog = Western, shorter-strided, less bouncy

5

What is a canter?

3-beated gait with a lead limb;

One limb pushes off, opposite forelimb lands, contralateral pairs take off, hind limb lands, lead forelimb lands on its own

6

What is the difference between a canter and a lope?

Canter = English

Lope = Western

7

What is a gallop?

4-beated gait;

Similar to canter except that pairs land separately and there is a moment of suspension

8

What is lameness?

Pathologic gait alteration associated with pain

9

What is a mechanical or neurologic pathologic gait alteration?

Alteration that is not associated with pain so is not a lameness

10

What is the most important question to ask an owner with a lame horse?

What does the horse do for a living?

11

What are the parts of a lameness exam?

Palpation, dynamic exam (jog them, lunge line on soft surface)

12

During a lameness exam, what is the relationship of the head to the lameness?

Head region will be higher on the lame leg

13

During a lameness exam, what is the relationship between the pelvis and lameness?

The pevis raises when stepping on the lame leg ("hip hike")

14

With lameness, the cranial phase of the stride _____.

decreases

15

With lameness, there is _____ drop asymmetry

fetlock

16

With lameness, there is joint _____ asymmetry.

flexion/extension

17

With lameness, there is a difference in landing _____ and hoof _____.

sound, landing pattern

18

What is a grade 5 lameness?

Minimal weight bearing in motion and/or at rest or a complete inability to move

19

What is a grade 4 lameness?

It is obvious at a walk

20

What is a grade 3 lameness?

Consistently observable at a trot under all circumstances

21

What is a grade 2 lameness?

Difficult to observe at a walk or when trotting in a straight line but consistently apparent under certain circumstances (i.e. turning in a circle)

22

What is a grade 1 lameness?

Difficult to observe and is not consistently apparent, regardless of circumstance

23

What is likely the problem when there seems to be ipsilateral lameness?

Likely a hind limb primary lameness;

Horse attempts to get weight off of the leg that hurts

24

What is likely the problem when there appears to be contralateral lameness?

More likely a forelimb issue

25

What is the problem here and how do you know?

There is a problem with the peroneus tertius muscle;

It normally works with the SDF to extend/flex all joints at the same time

26

When does the flexion test work better?

When the horse is already baseline lame

27

What is a perineural block?

Anesthetic around a nerve in the SQ space

28

What size needle should be used in a palmar digital block?

5/8", 25G

29

What volume should be used with a palmar digital block?

1.5 ml in each site

30

What are the landmarks of the palmar digital block?

Proximal collateral cartilages of the coffin bone