What are the 4 normal gaits for an average horse?
Walk, trot, canter, gallop
What is a walk?
2-3 limbs on the ground at any time;
Hind limbs land on hoof prints of previous steps
What is a trot?
Symmetrical, 2-beated gait;
Used most commonly for lameness evaluation;
Contralateral limb pairs move (HL with FR, HR with FL)
There is a moment of suspension
What is the difference between a trot and a jog?
Basically the same thing;
Trot = English, more bouncy
Jog = Western, shorter-strided, less bouncy
What is a canter?
3-beated gait with a lead limb;
One limb pushes off, opposite forelimb lands, contralateral pairs take off, hind limb lands, lead forelimb lands on its own
What is the difference between a canter and a lope?
Canter = English
Lope = Western
What is a gallop?
Similar to canter except that pairs land separately and there is a moment of suspension
What is lameness?
Pathologic gait alteration associated with pain
What is a mechanical or neurologic pathologic gait alteration?
Alteration that is not associated with pain so is not a lameness
What is the most important question to ask an owner with a lame horse?
What does the horse do for a living?
What are the parts of a lameness exam?
Palpation, dynamic exam (jog them, lunge line on soft surface)
During a lameness exam, what is the relationship of the head to the lameness?
Head region will be higher on the lame leg
During a lameness exam, what is the relationship between the pelvis and lameness?
The pevis raises when stepping on the lame leg ("hip hike")
With lameness, the cranial phase of the stride _____.
With lameness, there is _____ drop asymmetry
With lameness, there is joint _____ asymmetry.
With lameness, there is a difference in landing _____ and hoof _____.
sound, landing pattern
What is a grade 5 lameness?
Minimal weight bearing in motion and/or at rest or a complete inability to move
What is a grade 4 lameness?
It is obvious at a walk
What is a grade 3 lameness?
Consistently observable at a trot under all circumstances
What is a grade 2 lameness?
Difficult to observe at a walk or when trotting in a straight line but consistently apparent under certain circumstances (i.e. turning in a circle)
What is a grade 1 lameness?
Difficult to observe and is not consistently apparent, regardless of circumstance
What is likely the problem when there seems to be ipsilateral lameness?
Likely a hind limb primary lameness;
Horse attempts to get weight off of the leg that hurts
What is likely the problem when there appears to be contralateral lameness?
More likely a forelimb issue
What is the problem here and how do you know?
There is a problem with the peroneus tertius muscle;
It normally works with the SDF to extend/flex all joints at the same time
When does the flexion test work better?
When the horse is already baseline lame
What is a perineural block?
Anesthetic around a nerve in the SQ space
What size needle should be used in a palmar digital block?
What volume should be used with a palmar digital block?
1.5 ml in each site
What are the landmarks of the palmar digital block?
Proximal collateral cartilages of the coffin bone