Lecture 15 - Small Animal Rehab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 - Small Animal Rehab Deck (40)
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What is physical therapy?

Science of application of anatomy, biomechanics, psychology, physics, and physiology to persons/animals with dysfunctions, injury, pain, or physical abnormalities.


Rehab is good for what types of injuries/animals?

1. Athletes

2. neurologic injuries

3. Orthopedic injuries

4. Arthritic animals

5. Obese animals

6. Geriatric animals

7. Non-compliant owners


Why is joint immobilization bad?

1. Cartilage degeneration

2. Ligament degeneration

3. Muscle atrophy

4. Hypertrophy of scar tissue


How does cartilage degeneration occur with immobilization?

Decreased synovial fluid production, decreased diffusion into cartilage


What can joint immobilization ultimately lead to?

Decreased ROM

Increased pain, OA, functional impairment


What are the benefits of rehab?

1. Maintains or increases joint ROM

2. Slows development of OA (nutrition to cartilage)

3. Decreases pain

4. Shortens recovery time

5. Increases quality of life


What are things to note during the patient assessment for rehab?

1. Throrough history

2. Lifestyle/expectations

3. General PE

4. Ortho exam

5. Neuro exam


Pain management should aways be done with a _____ approach.

multimodal (EX: NSAID + heat therapy)


What are some important aspects of nursing care during rehab?

1. Soft bedding

2. Proper nutrition

3. Monitoring for pressure sores

4. Monitoring urination (scald, retention)


What non-specialized rehab equipment are used?

1. Thermotherapy

2. Passive ROM

3. Massage therapy

4. Land exercises (wheelbarrow, dancing, sit-to-stand, assisted ambulation)


What specialized rehab equipment are used?

1. Underwater treadmill

2. Pool

3. Land treadmill

3. Therapeutic ultrasound

4. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation

5. Low level laser therapy

6. Land-based tools (physio-rolls, Cavaletti rails, stairs, balance board)


What is cryotherapy?

Superficial cold therapy applied to injured area usually 0-72 hours post injury.


What are benefits of cryotherapy?

1. Skeletal muscle relaxation (improved venous/lymphatic flow, reduced edema)

2. Vasoconstriction (reduced edema)

3. Slows nerve conduction (analgesia)


How far do superficial heating agents penetrate and what is an example?

Up to 2 cm;

EX: warm packs


How far do deep heating agents penetrate and what is an example?

Up to 5 cm;

EX: therapeutic ultrasound


When should heating tissues be used?

Before or after ROM exercises


What do heating tissues do?

1. Increase sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity --> reduce pain and muscle spasms (decreased pain perception)

2. Relaxes muscles

3. Increase blood and lymphatic flow


What does massage therapy do?

1. Increase blood and lymphatic flow

2. Breaks down adhesions

3. Relaxes muscles

4. Positive emotional state


When should massage therapy be done?

Before putting the animal on a treadmill or doing other physical exercises


When is massage therapy contraindicated?

When there is infection, neoplasia, open wounds, thromboembolic disease


What is passive ROM?

Motion in a joint without muscle contraction;

Manual flexion and extension of joints


What are benefits of land-based activities?

1. Improve tissue strength

2. Increase coordination and cardiovascular fitness

3. Decrease joint stiffness/pain, muscle atrophy


When are land-based activities contraindicated?

When there is persistent pain, unstable fractures or luxations


What are benefits of Cavaletti rails?

1. Increase active flexion

2. Increase active extension


What does use of Cavaletti rails develop?

Proprioception, coordination, balance;

Used at end of therapy for neuro cases


What are benefits of using a balance board?

Improve blanace, proprioception, and coordination


What are benefits to using a land treadmill?

1. Build strength and coordination

2. Most dogs can be trained to use it

3. Sometimes better than underwater treadmill


What are benefits of water-based exercises?

1. Low impact

2. Can be started early in the recovery phase

3. Thermotherapy

4. Resistance and viscosity

5. Surface tension

6. Buoyancy


Under what conditions might water therapy be contraindicated?

1. Cardiac dysfunction

2. Respiratory dysfunction

3. Decreased thermal sensation

4. Severe peripheral vascular disease

5. Infection

6. Diarrhea or incontinence


What are benefits of the underwater treadmill?

1. Strengthen muscle mass

2. Improve cardiovascular fitness

3. Increased muscle circulation

4. Increased joint flexibility

5. Decreases pain