What are advantages to standing surgery?
- Decrease facility needs
- No need to stand up for recovery
What are disadvantages to standing surgery?
- Patient motion
- Specialized equipment
- Hemorrhage - can sometimes decrease but can be difficult to control
What should you consider when selecting a patient for standing surgery?
- Is it able to stand? (concurrent ortho issues, cardio status)
- is it able to be restrained? (patient compliance, available equipment, size, age)
- Do you have sufficient help? (surgeon, assistant, anesthetist, holder)
- Is the condition amenable to standing surgery?
What is one common method for physical restraint of horses?
Where should the horse's head be positioned in the stock?
between the upright bars
What does the holder need to make sure of when a horse is sedated in a stock?
That their trachea isn't impinged upon - their head tends to drop when they are sedated
Which gate in a stock needs to be closed first after walking a horse into it?
Back gate - the horse will back up if the front gate closes first
Which end of the stock should the horse be walked out of?
What gate of the stocks should be opened first if you need to back a horse out?
Stocks are a _____ form of restraint that still requires an _____ to manage the head.
What do bovine stocks have that equine stocks do not?
What areas can a twitch be used on as a secondary form of restraint?
Nose, ear, skin, lip chain
What two forms of secondary restraint can be used on bovines other than the stocks?
Twitch and nose tongs
What types of chemical restraints can be used?
Sedation (acepromazine, alpha 2 agonists)
Analgesics (opioids, local anesthetics)
What type of tranquilizer is acepromazine?
What does acepromazine do?
Mostly helps to calm anxiety (no analgesia)
What are routes of admin for ace?
PO, IV, IM
What is a side effect of ace and what patient would you NOT wanna give it to?
Hypotension; do not give to patient with a history of bleeding
What are alpha 2 agonists used for?
Sedation and analgesia
How can alpha 2 agonists be admin?
Intermittent IV bolus, CRI, epidural, IM
What are side effects of alpha 2 agonists?
Paradoxical excitement/rage, increased urination, ataxia, bradycardia, hypertension --> hypotension, recumbency
What are 3 types of alpha 2 agonists?
Rank the alpha 2 agonists in order from shortest to longest acting.
Shortest = Xylazine
Moderate = Romifidine
Longest = Detomidine
What is the cheapest alpha 2 agonist? What is a side effect?
Xylazine; greatest degree of ataxia
What alpha 2 agonist is not frequently available? What are side effects?
Least cardio effects, don't tend to drop head as much
What is the most expensive alpha 2 agonist?
What are reversals for alpha 2 agonists?
Yohimbine, Atipamezole (Antisedan), Tolazaline
Opioids are _____ that helps to "_____" feet.
How are opioids administered?
IV/IM bolus, CRI, epidural
What are side effects of opioids?
Head twitches, ileus, rage