What is colic?
Abdominal pain, most commonly of GI origin (can be due to other things such as uroliths).
What % of colic cases require surgical intervention?
What does a colic exam consist of?
The 10 P's:
Pain, Pulse, Perfusion, Peristalsis, Pings, Paunch, Passing an NG tube, Palpation, PCV/TP, Peritoneal fluid
What is paunch?
How distended the abdomen looks
What is considered an elevated HR in horses?
What is a "toxic line"?
Purple line on gums around teeth - can be a sign of endotoxemia
What should you listen for during abdominal auscultation?
Peristalsis (frequency, intensity, duration, fecal passage)
How frequent should peristaltic sounds be when auscultating?
2-3 episodes in 1-2 minutes
(Should not be continuous, should not be absent)
When passing an NG tube, how much fluid reflux is abnormal?
If you get reflux (>2 L) with an NG tube, what can be causes?
Clostridium/Salmonella, small intestinal lesion
What can an NG tube be used for other than relief of gas/fluid?
Enteral fluid therapy (water, mineral oil (laxative))
What is reflux?
Difference bt amount of fluid you put in the stomach to get a siphon going and what comes out that you didn't put in
T/F: The SI is not palpable in a normal horse.
What is visceral distention on rectal palpation a sign of?
Gas, distended large colon
What types of abnormalities (location-wise) can you feel on rectal palpation?
Nephrosplenic entrapment, inguinal rings (hernias)
What is a risk of rectal palpation?
What should the large colon feel like normally on rectal palpation?
should be soft and floppy
What is a normal PCV? TS? Lactate? WBC?
PVC = 28-40%
TS = 6-8 mg/dL
Lactate = <2 mmol/L
WBC = 5,000-12,000 cells/mL
What does a PCV >60% mean?
Decreased prognosis for life; shunting blood from other ogans, something severe is happening
What is a normal TP for peritoneal fluid?
What is a normal WBC for peritoneal fluid?
What can be seen on cytology of peritoneal fluid?
peritonitis, rupture of GIT
What things can be evaluated with transabdominal ultrasound?
SI distention, intestinal wall thickness, peritoneal fluid, gastric size, SI/LI contencts, spleen and kidneys, intussusception
What can be diagnosed via gastroscopy?
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome, gastric impaction
What are indicators of surgical colic?
- Pain (severe, analgesia doesn't help, horse throws itself on ground)
- Pulse (52-78 bpm, >80 bpm severe)
- Perfusion (prolonged CRT, poor pulse quality)
- Absence of peristalsis
- >2 L of reflux with NG tube
- PCV > 60%
- Abnormal peritoneal fluid
- Enteroliths or lg amounts of sand on xray
What are 3 medical therapies that can be done for colic?
1. Pain management (NSAIDs, lidocaine, opioids)
2. Fluid therapy
What is the most common NSAID used?
When would you use omeprazole?
When ulcers are suspected
What are some laxatives we can use?
Mineral oil, water, epsom salts
What are some diseases of the oral cavity?
1. Dental disease
3. Foreign bodies
5. Salivary gland conditions
6. Infectious disease
7. Congenital and developmental disorders