Lecture 17 - Equine GI Surgery Flashcards Preview

Intro to Surgery > Lecture 17 - Equine GI Surgery > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 17 - Equine GI Surgery Deck (75)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is colic?

Abdominal pain, most commonly of GI origin (can be due to other things such as uroliths).

2

What % of colic cases require surgical intervention?

5-10%

3

What does a colic exam consist of?

The 10 P's:

Pain, Pulse, Perfusion, Peristalsis, Pings, Paunch, Passing an NG tube, Palpation, PCV/TP, Peritoneal fluid

4

What is paunch?

How distended the abdomen looks

5

What is considered an elevated HR in horses?

>60 bpm

6

What is a "toxic line"?

Purple line on gums around teeth - can be a sign of endotoxemia

7

What should you listen for during abdominal auscultation?

Peristalsis (frequency, intensity, duration, fecal passage)

Pings

8

How frequent should peristaltic sounds be when auscultating?

2-3 episodes in 1-2 minutes

(Should not be continuous, should not be absent)

9

When passing an NG tube, how much fluid reflux is abnormal?

>2 L

10

If you get reflux (>2 L) with an NG tube, what can be causes?

Clostridium/Salmonella, small intestinal lesion

11

What can an NG tube be used for other than relief of gas/fluid?

Enteral fluid therapy (water, mineral oil (laxative))

12

What is reflux?

Difference bt amount of fluid you put in the stomach to get a siphon going and what comes out that you didn't put in

13

T/F: The SI is not palpable in a normal horse.

True

14

What is visceral distention on rectal palpation a sign of?

Gas, distended large colon

15

What types of abnormalities (location-wise) can you feel on rectal palpation?

Nephrosplenic entrapment, inguinal rings (hernias)

16

What is a risk of rectal palpation?

Rectal tears

17

What should the large colon feel like normally on rectal palpation?

should be soft and floppy

18

What is a normal PCV? TS? Lactate? WBC?

PVC = 28-40%

TS = 6-8 mg/dL

Lactate = <2 mmol/L

WBC = 5,000-12,000 cells/mL

19

What does a PCV >60% mean?

Decreased prognosis for life; shunting blood from other ogans, something severe is happening

20

What is a normal TP for peritoneal fluid?

<2.5 g/dL

21

What is a normal WBC for peritoneal fluid?

<1,000 cells/ml

22

What can be seen on cytology of peritoneal fluid?

peritonitis, rupture of GIT

23

What things can be evaluated with transabdominal ultrasound?

SI distention, intestinal wall thickness, peritoneal fluid, gastric size, SI/LI contencts, spleen and kidneys, intussusception

24

What can be diagnosed via gastroscopy?

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome, gastric impaction

25

What are indicators of surgical colic?

  1. Pain (severe, analgesia doesn't help, horse throws itself on ground)
  2. Pulse (52-78 bpm, >80 bpm severe)
  3. Perfusion (prolonged CRT, poor pulse quality)
  4. Absence of peristalsis
  5. Pings
  6. Paunch
  7. >2 L of reflux with NG tube
  8. PCV > 60%
  9. Abnormal peritoneal fluid
  10. Enteroliths or lg amounts of sand on xray

26

What are 3 medical therapies that can be done for colic?

1. Pain management (NSAIDs, lidocaine, opioids)

2. Fluid therapy

3. Laxatives

27

What is the most common NSAID used?

Banamine

28

When would you use omeprazole?

When ulcers are suspected

29

What are some laxatives we can use?

Mineral oil, water, epsom salts

30

What are some diseases of the oral cavity?

1. Dental disease

2. Dysphagia

3. Foreign bodies

4. Neoplasia

5. Salivary gland conditions

6. Infectious disease

7. Congenital and developmental disorders