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What were the findings of the Milinski study?

Females reliably preferred males with the largest
number of MHC alleles


In runaway selection, a relationship exists between what?

alleles that code for a
male trait and female preference for that specific trait


What happens when the preference/trait association is set in motion?

The effect will become exaggerated over generations
 Males will develop an amplified version of the
originally preferred trait
 Females will apply stronger selection pressures for the
expressed trait


Female stalk eye flies prefer males with _______ eye stalks.



What two test conditions were created in the stalk eye experiment?

Males with the longest eye stalks were allowed to breed
 Males with the shortest eye stalks were allowed to breed
 Females were selected randomly for the two treatments


What were the results in the long stalk eye condition?

Resulting offspring
had increasingly long eye stalks and the converse was true in the short eye-stalk condition


When females of the subsequent generation of short eye stalks were given free choice of mates, what happened?

they selected males
from their experimental condition (preference has to exist in females)


Cluttonbrock studies male-male competition in red deer. What are the findings?

 Male stags compete to
maintain harems
 23% of harem holders show signs of fighting injury
 6% are permanently injured


Male red deer use what to help judge fighting ability?

bouts of roaring


When is roaring seen?

almost exclusively during mating season.


When do roaring rates increase?

When male competitors approach