Lecture 9 - Nutrients for Energy Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 - Nutrients for Energy Metabolism Deck (28):
1

What is the fundamental difference in Vitamins vs minterals?

Vitamins are organic minerals are not
-botht are individual units

2

What is the function of both vitamins and minerals?

Assits enzymes to release energy
-both do not yield energy

3

Both vitamins and minerals can be broken down, true or flase?

False, vitamins can be broken down but minerals can not

4

How are vitamins and minerals measured?

Vitamins: micrograms or mg
Minerals: micrograms or g

5

What is bioavailability?

Includes the amount of vitamins/minerals in food and the amount absorbed and used by the body

6

What are the factors that affect bioavailability?

1. Efficiency of digestion/ time of transit
2. Nutrient status (deficient or missing one)
3. Food prep method
4. Source of the nutrient
5. Other foods present like binders and fibre

7

What are the water soluble vitamins?

Basically all the B vitamins
-Thiamine
-Riboflavin
-Niacin
-Pantothenic acid
-B6
-Folate
-B12

and Vitamin C

8

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

9

Name the following for Thiamin:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

B1

TPP

Helps with energy release, Helps TCA cycle work

Not common, seen in people who don’t consume enough food and alcoholics

Beriberi
-can have either wet or dry symptoms but normally seen together

Broccoli, milk, veggie burger, pork chops, pita and cereal

10

Name the following for Riboflavin:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

B2

FMN, FAD

Important in the TCA cycle

Not very common: Ariboflavinosis

No UL

Beef liver, Milk, ogurt, soy beverages, oysters

11

Name the following for Niacin:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

B3

NAD, NADP

Central in energy transfer rxns, Carries H into the TCA cycle, protects against neurological degredation

Pellagra

Very rare: rare from food, niacin flush painful tingling sensation

Beef liver, mushrooms, chicken brest and ground beef

12

Name the following for Pantothenic Acid:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

Part of the CoA

Rare

No UL

Many food sources

13

Name the following for Biotin:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

Carries activated CO2 in TCA cycle

Rare

No UL

Many food sources

14

Name the following for B6:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

Pyridoxal, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine

PLP

Transfers amino group to keto acid. Helps with the development of serotonin

Rare

Rare

Blueberries and Meat

15

Name the following for Folate:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

Folacin, Folic Acid

THF

Converts b12 to its coenzyme, Synthesis of DNA, Regenerates methionine from homocysteine

Neural tube defects (spinal cord)

Anemia, GI deterioration due to inadequate intake, and then impaired absorption

Lentils, asparagus, broccoli

16

Name the following for B12:

Names
The short form of co enzyme
Function toxicity and
Deficiency

Cobalamin

Regeneration of methionine, Synthesis of DNA and RNA, maintain nerve sheaths, bone cell activity and metabolism

Reflects poor absorption not intake

No UL

Almost exclusively meat products. Bioavailability high in milk and fish

17

How are we most likely to see Vitamin B deficiencies presented as?

More than one B deficiency together
-single B deficiencies are rare
-Skin and tongue sensitive to B deficiencies

18

Overall, how do Vitamin B complex toxicities occur?

- Unknown from food
-Supplement overuse
-Cells must rid itself of excess via urine

19

What is the different in major vs trace minerals?

Differentiate in the amount we need and the amount present in the body

20

What is sulphurs purpose in the body?

Oxidized form is sulphate
-in food and beverages
AA's methionine and cysteine found in dietary proteins
-S stabilizes protein structure
-S content high in hair skin and nails
-No recommendations on amount

21

What is Iodines purpose in the body?

Iodide is the form in the body
Found in seafood, salt
Needed in small amounts
Appart of thyroid hormones
-regulate body temp and metabolism
Controls the rate at which cells use O2

22

What does having a deficiency in iodine result in?

decrease (not common) in iodine reduces thyroid hormones and increases TSH produced and leads to increased uptake of iodide resulting in gliders
-solved this problem by added iodine to table salt

23

What does iodine toxicity look like?

Enlargement of thyroid gland
Goider development in fetus
UL set

24

What is Manganese purpose in the body?

In bones and metabolically active tissues (liver)
Cofactor to many enzymes
-part of an enzyme in bone formation
Requirements are low
deficiencies rarer
Toxicity from environmental contaminants (water)
Grain products are a major source

25

What is Chromiums purpose in the body?

maintains glucose homeostasis and enhances insulins actions
Has different charges and is most stable in foods
Found in unrefined foods like whole grains

26

Who benefits the most from Vitamin and mineral supplements?

Women of child bearing age
-Folic Acid

50+
-vit D

People with known deficiencies
-Iron, B12

Following fad diets ike low carb

27

Why is using supplements not the best idea?

It does not make thins better for you beyond your normal metabolic activity
-just brings levels up to normal and lets your body do the rest

28

What is the way in which B12 is absorbed?

1. B12 bound to proteins in food
2. HCl in stomach denatures the proteins exposing the vitamin
3. Pepsin in the stomach breaks down the protein.
4. B12 is released
5. Intrinsic factor is make in the stomach
6. In the SI the intrinsic fact binds to B12 and carries the B12 to the terminal ileum where it is absorbed into the blood