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Flashcards in Lung Deck (452)
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30

Congenital lobar emphysema:

A. Age at presentation.
B. Most common site.

A. Within 6 months after delivery.

B. Left upper lobe.

31

Congenital lobar emphysema: Radiography.

Compression of contralateral lung and mediastinal shift.

32

Congenital lobar emphysema: Histology.

Alveolar distention without fibrosis.

33

Congenital lobar emphysema: Etiologies.

Idiopathic: Most cases.

Intrinsic compression of the bronchus supplying the affected lobe: Structural defect of bronchus.

Extrinsic compression: Mass.

34

Chronic bronchitis: Histology.

Reid index >0.5 (glands make up more than half the thickness of the bronchial wall).

Mild chronic inflammation.

35

Asthma: Gross pathology (3).

Hyperinflated lungs.

Mucous plugging of airways.

Saccular bronchiectasis.

36

Asthma: Histology (3).

Mucous plugs containing eosinophils.

Fibrosis beneath the basement membrane with patchy loss of epithelium.

Thickened walls of airways due to edema, hyperplasia of smooth muscle, increased mucous glands.

37

Asthma vs. chronic bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis: Few or no eosinophils.

38

Bronchiectasis: Definition.

The bronchus is wider than its bronchial artery.

39

Bronchiectasis: Clinical presentation.

Persistent cough.

Copious, foul-smelling sputum.

40

Bronchiectasis: Causes (8).

Primary ciliary dyskinesia.
Rheumatoid arthritis.
Immunodeficiency.
Cystic fibrosis.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
No known cause (30%).
Graft-versus-host disease.

Infections.

41

Bronchiectasis: Histology (2).

Mucosa: Variable inflammation, reactive changes, necrosis.

Wall: Chronic inflammation, fibrosis.

42

Middle-lobe syndrome:

A. Definition.
B. Causes.

A. Recurrent or persistent atelectasis of the right middle lobe.

B. Lymphadenopathy, malignancy.

43

Type of emphysema associated with

A. Cigarette smokers (2).
B. α₁-Antitrypsin deficiency.

A. Proximal acinar or centrilobular.

B. Panacinar or panlobular.

44

Types of emphysema associated with bullous disease and idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax (2).

Distal acinar, paraseptal.

45

Emphysema: Histology (2).

Alveolar distention without fibrosis.

Club-shaped septa may project into the alveolar spaces.

46

Interstitial emphysema.

Presence of air outside the airways, e.g. in the connective tissue and around bronchovascular bundles.

47

Constrictive bronchiolitis: Site.

Terminal conducting airways.

48

Constrictive bronchiolitis: Associations (8).

Collagen-vascular disease.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Inhalational injury.
Neuroendocrine hyperplasia/tumors.

Viral infection.
Organ transplantation.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Drugs.

49

Constrictive bronchiolitis: Histology (4).

Fibrosis.

Chronic inflammation with epithelial metaplasia.

Smooth-muscle hyperplasia.

Luminal obliteration.

50

Acute bronchiolitis:

A. Age group.
B. Associations (2).

A. Infants and children.

B. Viral infection, bacterial infection.

51

Acute bronchiolitis: Histology (3).

Intense acute and chronic inflammation of small bronchioles.

Epithelial necrosis and sloughing.

Edema.

52

Diffuse bronchiolitis:

A. Epidemiology.
B. Associations (4).

A. Affects Asian adults.

B. HLA Bw54; cold agglutinin, increased ESR, leukocytosis.

53

Diffuse bronchiolitis: Histology (3).

Lymphocytes, plasma cells, foamy macrophages.

Many intraluminal neutrophils.

Organization of exudate to form polypoid plugs.

54

Respiratory bronchiolitis: Association.

Cigarette smoking.

55

Respiratory bronchiolitis: Histology (4).

Interstitial inflammation.

Many intraluminal pigmented macrophages.

Smooth-muscle hypertrophy.

Mild fibrosis.

56

Mineral-dust bronchiolitis: Type of lung disease.

Restrictive, due to fibrosis.

57

Mineral-dust bronchiolitis: Histology (3).

Fibrosis.

Deposits of dust mainly around respiratory bronchioles.

Luminal narrowing.

58

Follicular bronchiolitis: Type of lung disease.

Obstructive, due to external compression.

59

Follicular bronchiolitis: Histology.

Lymphoid hyperplasia with reactive germinal centers.