Lung Flashcards Preview

Anatomic pathology > Lung > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung Deck (452)
Loading flashcards...
240

Pulmonary tuberculosis: Complications of growth of lesion (4).

Cavitation.

Empyema.

Bronchopneumonia.

Embolization.

241

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Virulence factors (3).

Proteins of the cell envelope.

Lipopolysaccharide.

Mycobacterial cell-entry protein (Mcep).

242

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Proteins of the cell envelope that impart virulence (3).

Peptidoglycan.

Arabin-galactan.

Mycolic acids.

243

Mycobacterium tuberculosis:

A. Lipopolysaccharide.
B. Gene for the cell-entry protein.

A. Lipoarabinomannan.

B. mce1A.

244

Mycobacterium avium complex: Most likely portal of entry.

The gastrointestinal tract.

245

Atypical mycobacterial infections: Histology (3).

Necrotizing granulomas.

Non-necrotizing granulomas.

Immunocompromised patients: Poorly organized infiltrates of histiocytes, nonspecific inflammation.

246

Pulmonary disease due to rapidly growing mycobacteria: Leading causes (2).

M. abcessus.

M. fortuitum.

247

Hyphae of Aspergillus spp.:

A. Branching.
B. Septa.

A. Dichotomous; acute-angle.

B. Frequent.

248

Hyphae of Fusarium spp.:

A. Branching.
B. Septa.

A. Right-angle mostly.

B. Frequent.

249

Hyphae of Pseudallescheria boydii.:

A. Branching.
B. Septa.

A. Haphazard.

B. Frequent.

250

Hyphae of zygomycetes:

A. Branching.
B. Septa.
C. Differences from other fungal hyphae (2).

A. Haphazard; obtuse-angle.

B. Inconspicuous.

C. Wider (up to 25 μm); non-parallel sides.

251

Zygomycosis: Most common genus.

Rhizopus.

252

Zygomycosis: Portal of entry.

Inhalation of spores.

253

Zygomycosis: Predisposing factors (6).

Breach of skin or mucosa.

Iatrogenic immunosuppression.

Neutropenia.

Diabetes mellitus.

Antibiotics, broad-spectrum.

Severe malnutrition.

254

Zygomycosis: Vascular lesions (2).

Invasion of vessels.

Granulomatous vasculitis.

255

Growth of zygomycetes in tissue:

A. Facilitating enzyme.
B. Role of iron.

A. Ketone reductase permits growth in acidic, glucose-rich environments.

B. Essential for growth; deferroxamine increases susceptibility to zygomycosis.

256

Pulmonary aspergillosis: Patterns of disease (3).

Colonization of old cavity lesion (fungus ball).

Hypersensitivity reactions.

Invasion.

257

Pulmonary aspergillosis: Target lesion.

Necrotic center surrounded by hemorrhagic rim or infarct.

258

Pulmonary aspergillosis: Classic tissue reaction.

Hemorrhagic infarct with sparse inflammation.

259

Bronchocentric granulomatosis: Causes.

Infection.

Noninfectious process such as allergy.

260

Bronchocentric granulomatosis: Histology (2).

Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation destroys small bronchi and bronchioles.

Palisading histiocytes replace the airway walls.

261

Histoplasmosis: Clinical forms (3).

Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis.

Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis.

Disseminated histoplasmosis.

262

Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis: Clinical presentations (2).

Self-limiting illness in a young child with first exposure to H. capsulatum.

Acute, severe illness similar to ARDS, resulting from exposure to a large inoculum of the fungus.

263

Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis: Clinical presentation.

Cavitary lesions in an adult with underlying lung disease.

264

Disseminated histoplasmosis: Risk factors (3).

Infancy.

Immunosuppression.

Congenital T-cell deficiency.

265

Histoplasmosis: Histology (3).

Necrotizing granulomas with thick fibrous capsule.

Concentric calcification may impart "tree-bark" appearance.

Immunocompromised: Organisms within foamy macrophages.

266

Pulmonary histoplasmosis: Complications (5).

Granulomatous mediastinitis: Matting and caseous necrosis of mediastinal lymph nodes.

Mediastinal fibrosis: Young adults; often lethal.

Pericarditis, pleural disease, broncholithiasis.

267

Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis: Usual clinical presentation.

Asymptomatic or subclinical; self-limited.

268

Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis: Cutaneous manifestations (2).

Erythema nodosum.

Erythema multiforme.

269

Blastomycosis: Initial clinical presentation.

Flulike illness.