Explain dehydration reaction
two monomers bond together to build a polymer. Water is lost (done by enzymes)
Polymers are broken down into monomers. Water is added. (done by enzymes)
What are monosaccharides?
the single sugar molecules that make up carbohydrates
What is the most common monosaccharide?
How are monosaccharides classified?
The location of the carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the carbon skeleton
What shapes are monosaccharides?
chains or rings
What is the bond that links two monosaccharides together?
What are polysaccharides?
many monosaccharides linked together
Polysaccharides are found as ______ in plants ________ in animals (liver cells)
Examples of structural polysaccharides
What is cellulose?`
a polysaccharide used to give plant cell walls their shape and structure
Compare and contrast cellulose and starch
Cellulose is made of glucose just like starch. However, starch is made of alpha glucose and cellulose is made of beta glucose
What type of bonding holds cellulose strands together?
Cellulose in humans passes through the digestive tract as _____
Why can’t we digest cellulose?
Our enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing alpha linkages can’t hydrolyze beta linkages in cellulose
What is chitin?
a structural polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi
What are lipids used for?
storage, insulation, water proofing and membranes
What are fats made of?
one glycerol and 3 fatty acids attached by
an ester linkage
Difference between saturated and unsaturated fats
Saturated-have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds
Unsaturated-one or more double bonds
Adipose cells do what?
Adipose tissues do what?
cushion vital organs and insulate the body
two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol
Are the tails or head of phospholipids hydrophobic
Describe how cell membranes are made
When phospholipids are added to water, they self-assemble into a bilayer, with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward the interior.
Steroids are lipids characterized by what?
a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings
an important steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes, and can act as a hormone.
Proteins are polymers made of _________ that are made of ______ ____ monomers.
polypeptides; amino acid
What are amino acids?
Amino acids are organic molecules with carboxyl and amino groups
Amino acids differ in their properties due to what?
differing side chains, called R groups (only 20 types of amino acids
Describe the primary structure of proteins
the order of the amino acids in a protein (like the order of letters in a long word)
Describe secondary structure of proteins
a pattern of folds and/ or coils of the amino acid chain resulting from hydrogen bonds between the amino acids
Describe tertiary structure of proteins
random folding, twisting, and clumping that takes place due to interactions between R groups
How does the random folding of tertiary structure happen?
hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions
Describe quaternary structure of proteins
two or more polypeptide chains combine
How does sickle-cell disease occur?
a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin
the loss of a protein’s structure
What causes a protein to be denatured?
Changes in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental factors
What are enzymes?
a type of protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions
Describe lock and key of enzymes
Enzymes match the shape of their substrates (reactants) to put them together or break them apart.
Where lock and key takes places is called the ______ ____
An enzyme will denature when?
at certain temperatures or pHs
What are chaperonins?
protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
What is X-ray crystallography used for?
to determine a proteins structure
What is the monomer that makes up nucleic acids?
Describe the bonds in nucleic acid
The nitrogen bases are pyrimidine in structure and form a bond between their 1’ nitrogen and the 1’ -OH group of the deoxyribose. This type of bond is called a glycosidic bond.
The phosphate group forms a bond with the deoxyribose sugar through an ester bond between one of its negatively charged oxygen groups and the 5’ -OH of the sugar
What are nucleic acids for?
They store genetic information (DNA)
and determine the primary structure proteins
What are nucleotides made of?
a base, sugar, and phosphate
What are nucleosides made of?
base and sugar
The phosphate and sugar make up the _____ of DNA the base makes up the ______
Difference between pyrimidines and purines
Pyrimidines – one ring (cytosine, thymine, uracil)
Purines two rings (adenine, guanine)
What is the difference between the 5’ end and 3’ end of a nucleotide?
The 5’ (five prime) is a phosphate group and the 3’ (three prime) is the hydroxyl group.
Difference between ribose and deoxyribose
ribose has a hydroxyl group (OH) on carbon 2, while deoxyribose is without an oxygen on carbon 2 (H). Ribose is the sugar component of the structure of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and deoxyribose is the sugar component in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Describe the shape of a fatty acid
long hydrocrabon chain that ends in a carboxyl group
describe the bond that is found in lipids
what is a triglyceride?
3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
how does cholesterol help create a cell membrane?
they bind with phospholipids to help form the membrane
What is the only thing that is different in a polypeptide?
each amino acid’s R group
How are proteins built?
What are the two different types of shapes in secondary structure?
alpha helix and beta sheet
Most carbohydrates are built on which sugar?
What are the three basic types of monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, galactose
Where does the energy come from in fats?
the hydrocarbon bonds
Why are saturated fats solid at room temperature?
they have hydrogen on each carbon. this causes the triglyceride to be rigid. this allows the triglyceride to pack up on other triglycerides
What is a kinky tail?
a bend in the fatty acid due to double bonds
What type of fats are kinky tails found in?
Why are unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature?
their kinky tails are unable to pack tightly together
Describe the charges of a phospholipid
negative head. tail has no charge