a molecule that is released to flow through blood or lymph to send a signal
Signals that act over short distances are called what?
Target cells that are near signaling cells are called what?
Hormone that act on the cell that released it are called what?
Nerve cells that release hormones onto target cells are called what?
Nerve cells that release hormones into the bloodstream to target cells are called what?
Hormones that are released outside the body are called what?
____ ______ ________ deliver signals outside the cell.
Water soluble hormones
_____ _______ hormones can get through the plasma membrane and go into cells
Water soluble hormones follow what pathway?
Signal transduction pathway
Lipid soluble hormones are transferred how?
form a hormone receptor complex that go directly to the nucleus
Gene expression usually involved ______ _______ hormones.
________ is released when a person is stressed.
How does Epinephrine work?
-Causes glycogen to break down when stressed-Causes muscle blood vessels to dilate -Causes intestinal blood vessels to constrict
A response reduces the initial stimulus. This is called what?
Pairs of hormones often help maintain homeostasis. These are called what?
Antagonistic Hormone Pairs
Blood glucose level is usually _______.
Insulin and glucagon is released by what organ?
When blood glucose level rises, _____ is released.
When blood glucose level falls, _______ is released.
When blood sugar stays too high, this causes what?
What causes blood sugar to stay too high
Deficiency of insulin or less response of target cells
Describe Type I diabetes
autoimmune disease, beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed. Develops during childhood and daily insulin is given
Describe Type II diabetes
target cells stop responding normally to insulin. Being overweight and lack of exercise increase the risk. Diet and exercise can usually control this. (top ten causes of death in the U.S.)
What does the Hypothalamus do?
Controls pituitary glands and other glands through cascade that ways
The Hypothalamus helps helps link the _______ and ________ ______.
endocrine; nervous system
This gland controls water balance in kidneys and uterus contraction in females. What is is called?
This gland controls growth, milk production, gamete production, stimulates thyroid, stimulates adrenal cortex. What is it called?
This gland controls metabolism, lowers calcium levels
This organ lowers and raises blood glucose level.
This gland controls stress response, raise blood glucose, constrict blood vessels.
This gland controls long term stress response, increase blood glucose, blood pressure, and immune suppression
This organ controls perm formation (spermatogenesis), sex characteristics, testosterone (androgen)
This organ controls egg formation (oogenesis), female sex characteristics, uterine lining growth, estrogen and progesterone
This gland regulates body rhythmic cycles (light and dark), like sleep