a molecule that is released to flow through blood or lymph to send a signal
Signals that act over short distances are called what?
Target cells that are near signaling cells are called what?
Hormone that act on the cell that released it are called what?
Nerve cells that release hormones onto target cells are called what?
Nerve cells that release hormones into the bloodstream to target cells are called what?
Hormones that are released outside the body are called what?
Water soluble hormones
____ ______ ________ deliver signals outside the cell.
_____ _______ hormones can get through the plasma membrane and go into cells
Signal transduction pathway
Water soluble hormones follow what pathway?
form a hormone receptor complex that go directly to the nucleus
Lipid soluble hormones are transferred how?
Gene expression usually involved ______ _______ hormones.
________ is released when a person is stressed.
-Causes glycogen to break down when stressed-Causes muscle blood vessels to dilate -Causes intestinal blood vessels to constrict
How does Epinephrine work?
A response reduces the initial stimulus. This is called what?
Antagonistic Hormone Pairs
Pairs of hormones often help maintain homeostasis. These are called what?
Blood glucose level is usually _______.
Insulin and glucagon is released by what organ?
When blood glucose level rises, _____ is released.
When blood glucose level falls, _______ is released.
When blood sugar stays too high, this causes what?
Deficiency of insulin or less response of target cells
What causes blood sugar to stay too high
autoimmune disease, beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed. Develops during childhood and daily insulin is given
Describe Type I diabetes
target cells stop responding normally to insulin. Being overweight and lack of exercise increase the risk. Diet and exercise can usually control this. (top ten causes of death in the U.S.)
Describe Type II diabetes
Controls pituitary glands and other glands through cascade that ways
What does the Hypothalamus do?
endocrine; nervous system
The Hypothalamus helps helps link the _______ and ________ ______.
This gland controls water balance in kidneys and uterus contraction in females. What is is called?
This gland controls growth, milk production, gamete production, stimulates thyroid, stimulates adrenal cortex. What is it called?
This gland controls metabolism, lowers calcium levels
This organ lowers and raises blood glucose level.
This gland controls stress response, raise blood glucose, constrict blood vessels.
This gland controls long term stress response, increase blood glucose, blood pressure, and immune suppression
This organ controls perm formation (spermatogenesis), sex characteristics, testosterone (androgen)
This organ controls egg formation (oogenesis), female sex characteristics, uterine lining growth, estrogen and progesterone
This gland regulates body rhythmic cycles (light and dark), like sleep
Raises calcium levels