What are the 4 main attributes of bacteria?
-can be aerobic or anaerobic
Archaebacteria and Bacteria
A dye that causes the cell wall of a bacterium to turn a certain color is known as ________ _________.
gram positive is what color?
gram negative is what color?
Why is gram staining useful?
helps you determine what antibiotic to use
Describe the structure of gram positive bacteria
contain peptidoglycans that offer protection an anchorage
a layer of sugar polymers with polypeptides woven through them
Gram positive bacteria may release _______.
Describe the structure of gram negative bacteria
contain a layer of lipopolysaccharides on top of a thin layer of peptidoglycans.
carbs. protruding from a lipid based membrane
What chemical is used to stain gram positive bacteria?
What chemical is used to stain gram negative bacteria?
When gram negative bacteria die, they release ________.
How do antibiotics work?
break down peptidoglycans so they are affective against gram positive bacteria
Gram negative bacteria are extremely harmful because why?
their LPS layer is toxic which causes fever and shock
How are gram negative bacteria dealt with?
Strong antibiotics and alternative medicines are needed to kill them.
How to bacteria stick to their hosts?
Capsules and/or Fimbriae
sticky outside layer of polysaccharide or protein used to help the bacteria stick to a host or other colony members.
hair like protrusions used to attach itself to a host
Some bacteria move by using a _______.
Bacteria will move toward or away from a stimuli, like nutrient. This is known as ____.
Bacteria shape provided by the ____ ____.
What are 3 shapes of bacteria?
rod, sphere, spiral
What is the rod shape called?
What is the sphere shape called?
What is the spiral shape called?
What are the 3 growth arrangements?
paired colonies, chains, clumps
Paired colonies are called?
Chains are called?
Clumps are called?
Describe binary fission
the DNA replicates and the cell divides in half
What is conjugation
protein bridge is formed between 2 bacteria, a plasmid is donated
A plasmid from a dead bacteria cell is taken up by another. Can change the geno- or phenotype.
A bacteriaphage may accidentally transfer bacteria DNA from one bacteria to another.
a tough covering containing bacteria DNA
Endospores are produced where?
What must be used to sterilize surfaces containing endospores?
extreme heat and acidic cleaners
What do bacteria do while endospores are produced
they will lie dormant until conditions are right
Endospores cause what?
botulism in unsterilized canned foods, or tetanus in wounds
Bacteria that live in extreme environments called extremophiles
lives in hot springs and thermal vents in the ocean (100ºC)
- Live in marshes and cow stomachs
- Used in sewage treatment plants
- Breakdown CO2 and H2
Live in the dead sea and salt lakes, pump in potassium to achieve isotonic status
In the Bacteria kingdom, these bacteria are the most common and are often parasitic. What are they classified under?
In the Bacteria kingdom, these bacteria do photosynthesis to make energy and contain chlorophyll. What are they classified under?
Where are photosynthetic autotrophs found?
in water (rivers, lakes, swamps, etc)
In the Bacteria kingdom, these bacteria use inorganic compounds to make energy. What are they classified under?
Chemosynthetic autotrophs are also called _______ _______ bacteria.
Give 4 benefits of bacteria
- fix nitrogen
- help digest food in our intestines
- used to make food (cheese, yogurt)
Give 2 cons of bacteria
- Cause Diseases
- Over use of antibiotics has created more resistant bacteria