Describe cohesion in water
hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
________ helps the transport of water against gravity in plants
an attraction between different substances, for example, between water and plant cell walls
Describe hydrogen bonding
the oxygen ion in water are slightly negative, whereas the hydrogen ions are slightly positive. the oxygen ion of one water molecule is attracted to the hydrogen ions of the other water molecule
How does cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension help plant veins transport water?
the water molecules are initially attracted to the vein’s surface through adhesion. this creates a small clump of water molecules at the base of the vein. other water molecules attach to this initial clump through cohesion. surface tension helps water climb up the vein.
Define surface tension
a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid
Surface tension is related to what property of water?
Describe how water helps with the regulation of temperature
Water absorbs heat from warmer areas and releases this heat in cooler areas. Water is able to do this without much temperature change due to its high specific heat capacity.
Describe evaporative cooling of water
As a liquid evaporates, its remaining surface cools.
a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of substances
is what things dissolve in
the substance that is dissolved
Water is a versatile solvent due to its _______
Describe why hydrophilic substances dissolve in water
The polarity of hydrophilic substances are stronger than the cohesive forces of the water
What is a hydration shell?
When an ionic compound is dissolved in water, each ion is surrounded by a sphere of water molecules called a hydration shell
affinity for water
does not have an affinity for water
Why does ice float on water?
When water freezes, the hydrogen bonds that keep the molecules together freeze into a crystalline structure. This causes the frozen water molecules to be evenly spaced apart. This means that ice is less dense than water.
Why is the density properties of water so important to life on Earth?
if ice was more dense than water, then ice would sink to the bottom of bodies of waters. This would eventually cause all bodies of water to freeze solid.
Water is in a state of __________ __________ in which water molecules can break up and reform.
When water gains a hydrogen ions it becomes a ___________ ____
The molecule that lost the hydrogen is now a ___________ _____
Bases contains extra hydronium or hydroxide ions?
Acids contain extra hydronium or hydroxide ions?
The internal pH of most living cells must remain close to pH _
What is acid precipitation?
rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.6
What causes acid precipitation?
What are the effects of acid precipitation on the environment?
damage life in forests, lakes, streams, and oceans (coral reefs have lack of calcification)
Effects of acid precipitation on soil chemistry are contributing to the decline of some forests
How does hydrogen bonding relate to polar substances dissolving in water?
the hydrogen bonds in water attach to the hydrogen bonds of the polar substances instead of other water molecules
How does hydrogen bonding relate to evaporative cooling?
when the water molecules evaporate, the hydrogen bonds break away and this releases energy in the process.