Non-cellular particle made of genetic material and proteins that invade living cells
Give 7 characteristics of viruses
- Genetic makeup – DNA or RNA (never both)
- No nucleus (not a prokaryote)
- Not a cell
- Can only reproduce inside living cells
- not alive
Viruses sometimes have an ________ surrounding the capsid
outer protein coat containing nucleic acid
Viruses that go through the lytic cycle are also called what?
Describe the lytic cycle
The virus uses host DNA to build more virus structures in side the cell. Then the infected cell bursts (lyses) and releases the virus.
Viruses that go through the lysogenic cycle are also called what?
Describe the lysogenic cycle
virus nucleic acid combines with host nucleic acid forming a prophage. It lays dormant as host cell divides. After a period of time it goes into the lytic cycle
Phage and cell nucleic acid combined is known as what?
Phage and human cell combined is known as what?
How does HIV infect human cells
Uses reverse transcriptase to turn RNA into DNA
HIV is known as what type of virus?
List 5 viral vectors
- Touch (objects)
- Mosquito borne
A general out break of a virus is known as what?
A global outbreak is known as what?
How are restriction enzymes used to fight viruses?
splice DNA. Bacteria use them to splice viral DNA
How do vaccines work?
a variant form of the virus given to allow the immune system to develop antibodies
How do some medicines fight viruses?
target viral enzymes like reverse transcriptase in HIV
a small circular RNA moecule that infects plants. They use the host enzymes to replicate
misfolded infectious brain proteins that change the shape of hosts brain proteins
How to prions act?
they act slowly for up to ten years before symptoms develop and are almost indestructible
Describe the structure of the envelope
lipid bilayer that contains viral proteins