random change in genetic material
Mutation can happen when?
replication, transcription, translation, or cell division
Define point mutation
a single base pair is affected
What are the 3 different types of point mutation?
deletion, insertion, or substitution
extra base pair
Insertion and deletion affects the DNA how?
cause a frameshift
base pair is removed
part of the DNA is duplicated
part of the DNA is reversed
part of the DNA is moved to a different spot
the wrong amino acid is added
a stop codon is produced early causing the amino acid chain to end early
What is a silent mutation?
the wrong codon is produced but the correct amino acid is sill added (thus no change)
What is wobble?
more than one codon can code for the same amino acid. (makes silent mutations possible)
What is the operator?
a control site within the promoter that can be blocked to stop transcription (turns the gene off)
What is the repressor
a protein that slides into the operator to block transcription (the RNA polymerase cannot attach and pass)
What is the operon?
promoter + operator + genes they control
What is the co-repressor?
a molecule that combines with the repressor to change the repressor into its active form. (thus turning the gene off)
What is negative regulation?
gene is off until turned on
In negative regulation, the repressor is naturally ______.
What is an inducer?
molecule that bonds with the repressor to make it inactive (turns the gene on)
What is positive regulation?
even though the repressor is inactive and the gene is on, protein production must be stimulated
What is the activator?
stimulates the production of a protein in a gene that is on (calls for RNA polymerase to attach)
What are enhancers?
sites that call for specific activators to stimulate the production of certain proteins
What is Histone Acetylation?
acetyl groups are added to histone tails
What does Histone Acetylation do?
Histone charges are neutralized then they spread exposing DNA so transcription can be initiated.
a methyl group is added to
DNA methylation in ______ genes.
Proteasomes do what?
degrade old protein
What is ubiquitin?
molecules added to proteins needed to be broken down
What is micro RNA (miRNA)
single stranded degrades or blocks translation of mRNA
What is Small Interfering RNA (siRNA)?
double stranded but functions similarly to siRNA (may help fight viruses)