What is the CNS
Central Nervous System: The brain and spinal chord
Neurons that carry information in and out of the CNS are located in a system called what?
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
nerve cells that transmit info.
Describe the make-up of neurons
Made of a cell body with a nucleus
The _______ receives signals.
The ____ transmits signals.
The _______ is where and axon meets a dendrite
The ___ support cells, that nourish and insulate.
Define resting potential
ion gradient of (+) outside (-) inside
Describe the process of resting potential
Sodium and Potassium are moved in and out of the cell by sodium potassium pumps and ion channels
What causes the charge difference during resting potential?
Sodium is pumped out and potassium in, but potassium is allowed to flow back out
Define action potential
a stimulus reverses the charge of the membrane
In action potential, what reverses the charge of the membrane
Gated ion channels open allowing sodium to flow in
In action potential, restores the charge
potassium channels open to let potassium out, thus restoring the charge.
______ __________ ____ restore the balance.
Sodium potassium pumps
Define conducting action potentials
The opening and closing of gated ion channels travels along the membrane of the axon
The opening and closing of gated ion channels causes what?
a reversal of charge to travel down the membrane of the axon
The reversal of charge in conducting action potentials is the ________ _______ that nerves transmit.
Describe fast conduction
Glia can wrap the axon in a layers of membrane insulation
Glia can wrap the axon in a layers of membrane insulation called a ______ _____ that acts like wire insulation
_______ ____ do fast conduction in the PNS
___________ do fast conduction in the CNS
Describe receiving action potentials
Action potentials can be received electronically or chemically
Describe electronical receiving action potentials
through another action potential like interaction
What is chemical receiving action potentials known as?
Describe synaptic signaling
chemical signaling through a synaptic vesicle releasing a neurotransmitter that flows through a synaptic cleft
Give an example of receiving action potentials
Endorphins (decrease pain)
List the two types of neurons in PNS organization
Afferent and efferent neurons
______ neurons receive information
_______ neurons cause actions to happen.
Efferent neurons control what systems?
the motor system and the autonomic system.
______ ______ consist of acts you can control.
_________ ______ consist of acts that are involuntary. (breathing)
________ causes processes to become enhanced (breath faster, pump more blood)
__________ causes processes to relax
______ ________ control digestive activities
List the 3 types of autonomic System
Sympathetic, Parasympathtic, Enteric division