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Flashcards in Male Genital system Deck (89):
1

What is the ventral side of the penis

bottom

2

what is the dorsal side of the penis

top

3

what is hypospadias

abnormal opening of the urethra along ventral aspect of penis

4

What is epispadias

abnormal opening of urethra along dorsal aspect of penis

5

hypospaidas and epispadias are associated with what abnormalities

malformation of urethral groove and canal
un-descended testis
GU malformation

6

micropenis

abnormally short shaft

7

diphallus

two penis

8

bifid scrotum

2 scrotal sacs

9

phimosis

orifice of prepuce is too small to permit retraction

10

how does one get phimosis

congenital or
acquired by inflammation

11

phimosis is predisposed to what

infection
carcinoma

12

Balanoposthitis

infection of glans and prepuce
- nonspecific infection from bacteria/fungus
- not sexually transmitted

13

What does herpes look like

superficial ulcer
HSV-2 main

14

what does syphilis look like

T. pallidum
chancre slightly raised
red papule
shallow ulcer

15

Name 4 dermatological penile lesions

1. pemphigus
2. lichen planus
3. fournier's gengrene
4. peyronie's disease

16

What is phemphigus? What causes it?

- blistering disease caused by autoantibodies
- suprabasal acantholytic blister

17

what is lichen planus

flat topped pink purple papule self limited
- etiology not known

18

Fournier's gengrene

subcutaneous infection with gas production, necrosis
- can spread to other ares

19

What is Peyronie's disease

-circumscribed fibrous thickening of connective tissue
- hyalinized
- may have cartilage and bone
- painful curvature of penis toward lesion

20

Peyronie's disease is associated to what

chronic urethritis

21

Name 2 neoplastic disease

Condyloma Acuminatum
Giant Condyloma

22

Condyloma Acuminatum is associated with what disease

HPV

23

what is Condyloma Acuminatum

- sessile or pedunculated
- variable size
- acanthosis
- hyperkeratosis

24

What is acanthosis

thickening of epidermis

25

what is hyperkeratosis

thickening of keratin layer

26

another name for Giant Condyloma

Buschke–Löwenstein tumor

27

What does Giant Condyloma look like

large cauliflower like
multiple

28

What is the differential diagnosis for Buschke–Löwenstein tumor

verrucous carcinoma

29

who usually gets Giant Condyloma

older individuals

30

what is the histology for Condyloma Acuminatum

papilloma --> finger like projections
Koilocytosis

31

what is Koilocytosis

HPV cytopathy, perinuclear clearing

32

Name 3 dysplastic/CIS lesions of penis

Erythroplasia or Queyrat
Bowen's Disease
Bowenoid papulosis

33

dysplastic/CIS lesions of penis are usually caused by what? and how are they all similar

HPV 16
all squamous cell carcinoma in-situ

34

What is Bowen's disease

lesion on skin of shaft
plaque like

35

Where does Erythroplasia of Queyrat occur

lesion on glans

36

how are Erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's disease similar? different?

similar: same histo

different: Q- no increase in visceral Ca
B: increase probability of visceral cancer

37

Who gets Bowenoid papulosis

young sexually active adults

38

What are the low risk HPV

6, 11

39

What are the high risk HPV

16,18,31

40

What is similar about Bowenoid papulosis with Bowen's disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat? difference?

same histo
- Bowenoid papulosis has rare malignant transformation

41

What does Erythroplasia of Queyrat look like

soft, red, ulcerated plaque
- dermal inflammation

42

what is histo for erythroplasia of Queyrat

- irregular dysplastic acanthosis

- diminished keratin layer

43

What does Bowen's disease look like

bright red plaque with moist surface

44

How many lesions and who usually gets Bowen's disease

single lesion
older patient

45

What is the histo for Bowen's disease

- dysplastic and anaplastic cells in epithelial layer
- intact basement membrane

46

What does bowenoid papulosis look like? how many?

multiple pigmented papules

47

squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs in who

older populations

48

what protects males from squamous cell carcinoma

circumcision

49

what lines the normal testis

tunica vaginalis

50

what is cryptorchid testis

undescended testis
- in inguinal canal or abdomen

51

Cryptorchid testis increases risk for what

- bilateral: infertility
- germ cell neoplasms

52

what is histo and groos for cryptorchid testis

- increased hyaline deposition
- failure of germ cell maturation
- increase or normal Leydig cells
- tubular atrophy

53

atrophy of testis causes what

- interstitial scarring
- tubular basement membrane thickening
- loss of spermatogenesis
- fibrosis
- decreased or absent germ cells

54

Gonorrhea is seen where and what does it look like

- epididymis
- abscess formation and general inflammatory changes

55

how does mumps impact the male reproductive system

- heavy mononuclear inflammation
- edema
- may have neutrophils and abscesses

56

who usually gets mumps

- adolescent and adults

57

Where does syphilis impact first and then spread where

- testis
- spread to epididymis

58

what does syphilis look like

- gummas or diffuse inflammation of lymphocytes
- plasma cells
- obliterative endarteritis
- perivascular cuffing

59

Where does tuberculosis start and spread to

start epididymis then to testis

60

what does tuberculosis look like

classic caseating granulomas of TB

61

What is torsion? what problems does it cause

twisting of spermatic cord and blockage of venous drainage
- hemorrhagic infarction of testis
- acute testicular pain and swelling

62

is torsion a medical emergency

yes

63

Benign paratesticular tumor: adenomatoid tumor usually arises from where

epididymis, mesothelial in nature

64

are tumor markers present in adenomatoid tumor

no

65

histo for adenomatoid tumor

cuboidal/flat cells in cords
cytoplasmic vacoule

66

Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is associated with what

isochromosome 12p

67

testicular tumors usually occur in who

young people

68

how do testicular tumors present

painless testicular mass

69

germ cell tumors are associated with what

testicular dysgenesis syndrome

70

what is clinical features of testicular dysgenesis syndrome

- cryptorchidism
- hypospadias
- poor sperm quality

71

testicular tumors express what genetically

OCT3/4
NANOG

72

25% of seminomas have what activating mutations

KIT

73

What are 2 germ cell tumors

AFP
HCG

74

when do you see AFP

yolk sac tumors

75

when do you see HCG

- choriocarcinoma

76

what age group usually gets seminoma

30s

77

name 3 serum markers for seminoma

hCG (10%)
AFP negative
PLAP

78

histo for seminoma

- lobules with think septa
- large cells
- prominant nucleoli
-sparse lymphocytes

79

who usually gets Spermatocytic seminoma

over 65
old

80

what are 3 types of cells in spermatocytic seminoma

- small cells
- intermediate cells
- large cells

81

what is the marker for embryonal carcinoma

PLAP positive

82

marker for yolk sac tumor

positive for AFP ( alpha fetoprotein)
serium elevations for monitering

83

yolk sac tumor name microscopic patterns

endodermal sinus pattern
schiller-Duvall bodies

84

Choriocarcinoma mets where

liver/lung

85

Choriocarcinoma impact what 2 cells

- syncytiotrophoblastic cells ( large cell with irregular nuclei)
- Cytotrophoblastic cells ( smaller regular cells with clear cytoplasm)

86

Germ cell testicular tumor biopsy associated with

tumor spilllage

87

what are the clinical stages of germ cell testicular tumors

stage 1: confined to testis, epididymis or spermatic cord

stage 2: retroperitoneal nodes below diaphragm

stage 3: mets

88

these markers go with what disease
LDH
AFP
HCG

LDH - tumor burdern/volume
AFP - yolk sac tumor
HCG- choriocarcioma

89

histo for sertoli cell tumor

distinctive trabeculae with cordlike structures and tubules