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Flashcards in Prostate Pathology: Norton Deck (50)
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1

what are the 4 zones of the prostate

1. peripheral
2. central
3. transitional
4. anterior fibromuscular stroma

2

what zone of the prostate is the most common site for carciomas? hyperplasia?

carcinoma: peripheral
hyperplasia: transitional

3

What are the 2 layers that line the prostate gland

1. basal layer of cuboidal epithelium
2. inner layer of columnar secretory epithelium

4

What separates the prostate glands

fibromuscular stroma

5

What role does prostatic fluid play

protects and increases motility of sperm

6

what control growth and survival of prostate cells

testicular androgens

7

what are 3 pathological processes that occur in prostate

1. inflammation
2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
3. protsatic hyperplasia

8

What are 4 types of prostate inflammation

acute bacterial prostatitis
chronic bacterial prostatitis
chronic abacterial prostatitis
granulomatous prostatitis

9

what are common bacteria that cause acute bacterial prostatitis

same as UTI
- E.coli
- other gram -
- enterococci
- staph

10

clinical features of acute bacterial prostatitis

fever
chills
dysuria
prostate TENDER

11

what is the urinalysis for acute bacterial prostatitis

positive leucocytes
positive bacteria

12

clinical features of chronic bacterial prostatitis

mild symptoms
back pain
dysuria
pernieal and suprapubic discomfort
asymptomatic

13

a male with chronic bacterial prostatitis may have a history of what

recurrent UTI

14

urinalysis for chronic bacterial prostatitis

positive leucocytes
positive bacterial

15

What is the most common form of prostatitis

chronic abacterial prostatitis

16

urinalysis of chronic abacterial prostatitis

positive leucocytes
negative bacterial culture

17

clinical symptoms for chronic abacterial prostatitis

similar to chronic bacterial prostatitis

18

How can a male get Granulomatous prostatitis

from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instilled into bladder to treat superficial bladder cancer

19

what is the main prostate hormone

DHT dihydrotestosterone

20

What converts testosterone to DHT

type 2
5 alpha reductase

21

What does DHT bind to in prostate

androgen receptors on nuclei of stormal and epithelial cells

22

What is the etiology of BPH ( benign prostatic hyperplasia)

increased number of epithelial cells and stromal components influenced by DHT

23

Benign prostatic hyperplasia originates in what part of the prostate

transition zone (periurethral)

24

What are late and early nodules of prostate in BPH composed of

early: stromal cells
late: epithelial cells/glands

25

What is a clinical feature for benign prostatic hyperplasia

urethral obstruction causes
- bladder hypertophy and distension
- urine retention
- sudden acute urinary retention

26

what are some conservative treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia

decrease fluids before bedtime
decrease caffeine and alcohol

27

what are 2 medication options for moderate to severe symptoms of BPH

1. alpha blockers
2. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors

28

How do alpha-blockers help with BPH

decrease smooth muscle tone

29

how do alpha blockers help with BPH

decrease smooth muscle tone

30

what is a surgical option for BPH

transurethral resection of prostate