MedTerm - module 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MedTerm - module 11 Deck (112):
1

digestive tract or (2 other names)

alimentary tract
Gastrointestinal tract

2

digestion

mechanical and chemical breakdown of food for use by the body

3

stomat/o, or/o

mouth

4

cheil/o

lip

5

gloss/o, lingu/o

tongue

6

palat/o

palate

7

uvul/o

uvula

8

bolus

movements mix food with saliva to form a compact mass

9

sial/o

saliva

10

sialaden/o

salivary gland

11

three extrinsic salivary glands

parotid
submandibular
sublingual

12

bucc/o

buccal glands

13

epiglott/o

epiglottis

14

esophag/o

esophagus

15

peristalsis

involuntary wave-like movement

16

gastr/o

stomach

17

sphincter

control opening and closing through contractions

18

pylor/o

pylorus

19

antr/o

antrum

20

pepsia

digestion

21

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscles that guards the opening between the stomach and duodenum to ensure that food does not leave the stomach and enter the small intestine because it is chemically ready

22

enter/o

small intestine

23

duoden/o

duodenum

24

chol/e

bile

25

hepat/o

liver

26

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

27

pancreat/o

panreas

28

cholangi/o

bile ducts

29

jejun/o

jejunum

30

ile/o

ileum

31

cec/o

cecum

32

col/o, colon/o

colon

33

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

34

rect/o, proct/o

rectum

35

feces

solid waste expelled from the body through the anus

36

an/o

anus

37

defecation

removal of waste (feces)

38

abdomin/o, lapar/o, celi/o

abdomen

39

peritone/o

peritoneum

40

mesentary

fan-shaped fold of this peritoneum

41

or/o

oral

42

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

43

glossopathy

any disease of the tongue

44

sialolith

stone in the salivary gland

45

uvulitis

inflammation of the uvula

46

palatitis

inflammation of the palate

47

reflux

return of flow of fluid

48

gastroeophageal reflux disease (GERD)

backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus that gradually breaks down the mucous barrier of the esophagus

49

emesis

vomiting

50

hematemisis

vomiting of blood

51

bulimia

eating disorder in which people gorge themselves on food then induce vomiting

52

anorexia nervosa

psychoneurotic disorder

53

obesity

excess of body fat

54

polyp/o

polyp

55

polyposis

abnormal condition of multiple polyps, can develop

56

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

57

aphagia

inability to swallow, but this is rare with polyps

58

gastroenterology

branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the stomach and intestines

59

gastromegaly

abnormal enlargement of the stomach

60

ascites

abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

61

gastromalacia

abnormal softening of the walls of the stomach

62

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

63

adhesion

abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are separated

64

diarrhea

frequent passage of of loose, watery feces

65

constipation

decreased motility of the colon; defecation is difficult

66

dysentery

inflammation of the intestines

67

irritable bowel syndrome

IBS

68

ulcer

open wound

69

peptic ulcer

eroded area of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum

70

duodenal ulcer/gastric ulcer

occurs in the duodenum

71

apepsia

lack of digestion altogether

72

melena

bleeding in the upper GI tract, stools are black and tarry due to the presence of digested blood

73

hematochezia

passage of bloody stools

74

ulcerative colitis

inflammation of the large intestine that may produce a bleeding ulcer

75

idiopathic

adlkj

76

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestines

77

gastroenterocolitis

inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon

78

crohn disease

chronic intestinal inflammation that usually occurs in the terminal ileum and colon and is characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue can lead to intestinal obstruction

79

celiac disease

immune reaction to gluten

80

malabsorption

conduction of impaired digestion or impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients

81

diverticulitis

inflammatory condition involving the presence of diverticula

82

leukocytosis

elevated white blood count

83

diverticul/o

diverticulum

84

diverticulosis

presence of pouchlike herniations through the muscular layer of the colon, especially the sigmoid colon

85

ileus

obstruction of the intestines, caused by failure of peristalsis

86

intussusception

telescoping the intestines

87

volvulus

twisting of the intestine upon itself

88

hernia

protrusion, or rupture, of an organ through the body wall

89

inguin/o

groin

90

umbilic/o

umbilicus

91

hiatal hernia

upper part of the stomach protruding through the diaphragm

92

inguinal hernia

small loop of bowel protruding through a weak lower abdominal muscle

93

hermorrhoid

swollen or distendedm twisting veins in the rectal region

94

proctoptosis

proplapse of the rectum

95

rectocele

protrusion of the rectum

96

sclera

normally white

97

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

98

steat/o

excess fat

99

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

100

hepatoma

tumor of the liver

101

cirrhosis

chronic disease with gradual destruction of cells

102

hemochromatosis

fairly rare disorder that occurs when the body absorbs too much iron from food, creating excess iron deposits

103

cholelithiasis

gall stones

104

choledocholithiasis

stones in the common bile duct

105

cholangioma

tumor of the bile duct

106

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

107

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

108

endoscopy

visual examination of the interior of an organ using an endoscope

109

esophagoscopy

insertion of an instrument to look at the esophagus

110

laproscopy

look at the abdominal cavity

111

helicobacter pylori antibodies test

diagnostic blood test to see the presence of the helicobacter pylori that causes gastritis and pyloric ulcers

112

barium enema

radiographic fils taken of large intestin