MedTerm - module 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MedTerm - module 14 Deck (179):
1

osteocyte

bone cell

2

oste/o

bone

3

-cyte

cell

4

osseous

bony

5

chondr/o

cartilage

6

ossification

process of bone formation

7

epiphysis

bony end of a lon bone

8

epiphyseal plate

growth plate

9

osteoblasts

blood forming cells
small immature osteocytes

10

-blast

embryonic/immature

11

osteoclasts/phagocytes

resorb, digest, bony tissue and bone minerals

12

-clast

break

13

long bones

legs and arms

14

short bones

wrists and ankles

15

flat bones

cover soft body parts
shoulder blades, ribs, skull

16

sesamoid bones

small rounded bones.
increase efficiency of a joint muscles around them
patella

17

irregular bones

bones that dont fit into a category

18

diaphysis

middle shaft

19

metaphysis

eopiphysis and epiphyseal plate grow together to form this

20

articular cartilage

protect bone from direct bone-to-bone contact
slick, smooth, very tough fibrous tissue

21

bone depressions

hollows of bones

22

bone processes

raised or projected areas

23

periosteum

surrounds bone
outermost surface of the long bones except the ends

24

compact bone

hard, dense
strong

25

Haversian canals

blood vessels move through these channels within compact bone

26

spongy bone

interior of bones where spaces fill with marrow

27

red bone marrow

rich in blood andhave mature and immature blood cells

28

endosteum

lines medullary cavity

29

yellow bone marrow

made up of fat cells

30

axial skeleton

skull, spinal column, ribs and sternum

31

appedicular skeleton

upper and lower extremities
shoulder and pelvic girdles

32

maxill/o

maxila

33

mandibul/o

mandible

34

temporomandibular joint

mandible and temporal joint

35

cranial

skull

36

sinus

small air cavity

37

intracranial

within the skull

38

vertebr/o

vertebral

39

disks

separate vertebrae

40

lamin/o

lamina

41

vertebral foramen/neural foramen

spinal cord passes through

42

cervic/o

cervical

43

thorac/o

thoracic

44

dors/o

dorsal

45

lumb/o

lumbar

46

lumbar

pertaining to the loins

47

cost/o

costals; ribs

48

lumbocostal

pertaining to the loins and the ribs

49

sacr/o

sacrum

50

coccyg/o

coccyx

51

cocygeal

pertaining to the coccyx

52

sacral

pertaining to the sacrum

53

lumbosacral

pertaining to the lumbar and sacrum

54

thoracic cavity

rib cage

55

stern/o

sternum

56

cost/o

costals

57

manubrium

upper part of the sternum

58

xiphoid process

lower part of the sternum

59

xiph/o

xiphoid process

60

clavic/o

clavicle

61

clavicul/o

clavicle

62

scapul/o

scapula

63

acromi/o

acromion

64

acromioclavicular joint

acromion and clavicle articulate

65

humer/o

humerous

66

uln/o

ulna

67

radi/o

radius

68

radial

pertaining to the radius

69

ulnar

pertaining to the ulna

70

ulnoradial

pertaining to the ulna and radius

71

carp/o

carpals

72

metacarp/o

metacarpal

73

phalang/o

phalanges

74

proximal phalanges

ones nearest the palm

75

distal phalanges

neares the tips of the fingers

76

singular form of phalanges

phalanx

77

ili/o

ilium

78

ischi/o

ischium

79

pub/o

pubis

80

symphysis pubis

two pubic bones joint anteriorly at the midline

81

acetabul/o

acetabulum

82

acetabulum forms

hip socket for head of femur

83

femor/o

femur

84

tibi/o

tibia

85

patell/o

patella

86

fibul/o

fibula

87

perone/o

fibula

88

malleol/o

maleolus

89

tars/o

tarsal

90

calcane/o

calcaneus

91

metatars/o

metatarsal

92

muscul/o

muscle

93

my/o

muscle

94

myos/o

muscle

95

tendons

bones to muscle

96

point of origin

unmovable more stable end

97

point of insertion

moveable, farther from trunk

98

antagonist

oppose each other

99

synergist

contract with each other

100

muscle

contract, resulting in movement

101

autonomic

smooth muscle

102

viscer/o

visceral

103

smooth muscle opperates on

internal organs, blood vessels ad glandular ducts

104

skeletal muscles

striated
voluntary

105

cardi/o

cardiac

106

arthr/o

joint

107

articul/o

joint

108

articulation

point at which muscle attaches to bone

109

tendin/o

tendon

110

ten/o

tendon

111

ligament/o

ligament

112

aponeur/o

aponeurosis

113

synov/o

synovial

114

burs/o

busae/bursa

115

flexion

bending

116

extension

straightening

117

abduction

mvoement away from midline

118

adduction

movement toward midline

119

plant/o

plantar

120

plantar flexion

point toe

121

dorsiflexion

bend foot up

122

pronation

palm down

123

supination

palm up

124

prone

face down

125

supine

face p

126

rotation

multiple directions in one smooth arc

127

eversion

turning outward

128

inversion

turning inward

129

muscular dystropy (MD)

progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers

130

dystrohy

abnormal development

131

atrophy

wasting or without development

132

myasthenia gravis (MG)

chronic disease characterized by weakness

133

polymyositis

chronic inflammatory myopathy, rash over face, eyes and limbs

134

rhabdomy/o

striated/skeletal muscle

135

-penia

deficiency

136

sarc/o

flesh/tissue

137

fracture

broken bone

138

simple fracture

closed- does not rupture the skin

139

compound fracture

open - ruptures the skin

140

colles fracture

distal end of the radius with the distal fragment being displaced backward

141

osteitis

inflammation of bone

142

osteochondritis

inflammation of both bone and cartilage

143

osteomyelitis

inflammation of bone and bone marrow

144

bursitis

inflammation of bursa

145

diskitis

inflammation of intervertebral discs

146

meniscitis

inflammation of the meniscus

147

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon

148

tenosnovitis

inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane

149

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bone density

150

osteopenia

abnormal reduction in bone mass caused by inadequate replacement of bone lost through normal processes

151

osteopetrosis

abnormal condition of stone-like bone that is cause by increased formation of bone

152

osteomalacia

softenign of bone

153

osteonecrosis

bone tissue death

154

osteocarcinoma/osteosarcoma

malignant tumors of bone

155

osteofibroma

tumor of bone and fibrous tissue

156

myeloma

neoplasm composed of cells normally found in bone marrow

157

synoviosarcoma

malignant neoplasm arising in the synovial membrane of the joints and synovial cells of bursae and tendons

158

carpal tunnel syndrome

median nerve is squeezed by a wrist ligament that basses between that ligment and the bone and tendons of the wrist.
numbness/burning pain

159

systemic lupys erythematosus

collagen CT throughout the body becomes inflamed

160

arthralgia

generalized pain of the joints

161

pyrexia

fever

162

rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune reaction again joint tissues, especially synovial membranes

163

ankylosis

immobility/fixation of a joint

164

gout

defect in the metabolism of uric acid

165

osteoarthritis

degeneration of articular cartilage, changes in synovial membrane, hypertrophy of bones and proliferation of bone spurs

166

exostosis

bone spurs

167

bunion

abnormal enlargement of the base of the big toe

168

scoliosis

lateral curve of the spine

169

lordois

bending forward of the the lumbar spine

170

kyphosis

increased convexity of the thoracic spine

171

spondylosis

abnormal condition of the spine

172

spondylarthritis

arthritis in the spine

173

ankylosing spondylitis

chronic inflammatory disease that causes a fusion of the spine

174

ankyl/o

crooked or stiff

175

spondylolithesis

partial forward dislocaiton of 1 vertebra over the one beneath it

176

spinal stenosis

narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal with attendant pain

177

spina bifida

cogenital fissure of the vertebral column

178

sciatica

pain radiating down the hip

179

herniated disc

protrusion of the central part of he disk that lies between vertebra, resulting in the compression of the spinal cord and pain