MedTerm - module 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MedTerm - module 5 Deck (145):
1

respiration

breathing; process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the body and the environment

2

expiration/exhalation

breathing out carbon dioxide from the body

3

inspiration/inhalation

process of breathing in oxygen

4

ventilation

the process of both inspiration and expiration

5

external respiration

work of inhaling and exhaling between the respiratory and the external environment

6

internal respiration

exchange of inhalation and expiration takes place within the body, the work of the body cells taking in oxygen and giving carbon dioxide

7

nose

entrance to the respiratory system through which air travels to and from the lungs

8

nas/o, rhin/o

nose

9

nasal septum

is the separation of the nose (midline portion)

10

sept/o

septum

11

paranasal sinuses

air containing cavities in the bones around the nose

12

sinus/o

paranasal sinuses

13

pharynx

tubelike structure about 5 inches in length. throat and is a passageway for food and air

14

pharyng/o

pharynx

15

adenoids

masses of lymphoid tissue

16

adenoid/o

adenoids

17

tonsils

masses of lymphoid tissue

18

tonsil/o

tonsils

19

larynx

voice box; vital airway to the lungs; adams apple

20

laryng/o

larynx

21

phon/o

voice itself/sound

22

epiglottis

covers the entrance to the larynx to prevent food from passing into that organ during swallowing

23

trachea

windpipe, is a cylindrical tube in the neck, measuring 5 inches.

24

trache/o

trachea

25

bronch/o, bronchi/o

bronchi

26

bronchi

the division of the trachea, at its lower end, into two large air passages

27

bronchioles

division of bronchus; small branches

28

bronchiol/o

bronchioles

29

alveolar ducts

alveoli arise from here

30

alveoli

clusters of millions of minute air sacs

31

alveol/o

alveoli

32

pneum/o, pneumat/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o

lungs

33

lungs

main structures of the respiratory system

34

lobes

divides of the lungs

35

lob/o

lobes

36

thorax

chest

37

thorac/o

thorax

38

diaphragm

muscular partition that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

39

diaphragmat/o

diaphragm

40

phren/o

diaphragm

41

phrenalgia

pain in the diaphragm

42

phrenospasm

spasm of the diaphragm; hiccup

43

mediastinum

the central portion of the chest cavity, space between the lungs

44

pleura

double folded membranous layer which folds over to also form the lining of the chest wall

45

pleur/o

pleaura

46

pleural cavity

space separating the layers of the pleura contains a small amount of fluid that helps to keep the lungs as they expand and contract during breathing

47

intrapleural

anything occurring within the pleura

48

rhinitis

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually accompanied by inflammation and nasal discharge

49

pansinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses

50

rhinomycosis

fungal infection of the nasal membrane

51

obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

interruption of the airflow cause by the relaxation and repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal muscles during sleep

52

a-

without

53

-pnea

breathing

54

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx. could either be acute or chronic

55

nasopharyngitis

inflammation of the nose and pharynx

56

adenoiditis

inflammation of the adenoids

57

tonsillitis

inflammation of the tonsils. appear red and swollen

58

laryngitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the larynx

59

epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis

60

tracheitis

inflammation of the trachea

61

tracheostenosis

narrowing or constricting of the trachea

62

epistaxis

nosebleed. cause by a rupture of blood vessels in the nose

63

pertussis

highly contagious, bacterial upper respiratory tract. whooping cough with a whooping inhalation to follow

64

paroxysms

coughing

65

croup

condition that results from the acute obstruction of the larynx

66

stridor

high pitched sound that accompanies inspiration and is produced by the blocked air passages

67

influenza

flu, highly contagious and potentially fatal infection. categorized at A,B,C.

68

Asthma

reactive airway disease. chronic intermittent respiratory disorder in which the air passages of the lungs become inflamed and overresponsive to a host of triggering agents

69

mucus

slippery fluid secreted by mucous membranes to line and protect them

70

bronchitis

respiratory disorder in which inflammatory changes to and narrowing of the bronchi causes airflow limitations

71

laryngotracheobronchitis

inflammation of both the larynx and trachea

72

chronic bronchitis

recurrent cough and excessive production of pulmonary secretions

73

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

irreversible restricted airflow. COPD

74

emphysema

COPD. alveolar walls lose their elasticity, become overinflated, and eventually ruptured

75

dyspnea on exertion

early symptom of emphysema/

76

barrel chest

breathing requires more exertion.

77

cor pulmonale

a serious condition in which a portion of the heart becomes enlarged and may fail as a consequence of chronic lung disease

78

bronchiectasis

abnormal dilation of the bronchi. caused by bacterial infection.

79

crackles

crackling sounds heard during inspiration when the alveoli are filled with secretions

80

bronchogenic carcinoma

lung cancer arising from the bronchi

81

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

82

dys-

abnormal

83

-pnea

breathing

84

eupnea

normal breathing

85

eu-

normal

86

trachypnea

rapid or fast breathing

87

tachy-

rapid or fast

88

hyperpnea

excessive breathing

89

hyponea

deficient breathing

90

asphyxia

deprivation of oxygen for tissue use

91

orthopnea

ability to breathe only when in an upright position

92

pulmonary function tests

to see if everything is functioning right, measure breathing,

93

cystic fibrosis

inherited disorder that affects the mucous membrane of the respiratory system. mucous produce thick, abundant secretions that cause airway obstruction.

94

alveolitis

inflammation of the alveolus

95

atelectasis

disorder characterized by incomplete expansion or collapse of the alveoli

96

atel/o

imperfect or incomplete

97

ectasis

stretching, expansion

98

pneumoconiosis

occupation related lung diseases characterized by inflammation, infection and bronchitis

99

coni/o

dust

100

mucopurulent

presence of pus and mucous

101

pneumonia

acute inflammation of the lungs in response to infective agents

102

lobar pneumonia

area of the lung involved in the disease process

103

bronchopneumonia

consolidation occurs primarily in the terminal bronchioles

104

nosocomial infection

infection acquired during hospitalization

105

pleuritis/pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura

106

pulmonary neoplasms

new growths of abnormal tissue in the lungs

107

pleural effusion

excessive fluid can collect in the pleural space

108

pneumothorax

accumulation of gas or air in the pleural space between the lungs and chest wall

109

tachypnea

rapid breathing

110

tuberculosis

inhalation of mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacilli, rod shaped bacteria. invade the lungs

111

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

develops as a result of physical trauma. IRDS in infants

112

ventilator

use of a mechanical device for assistance of breathing

113

pulmonary edema

abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs

114

pulmonary embolism

blockage of a pulmonary artery

115

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx

116

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

OSA treated with this. is used only with patients who can initiate their own breathing

117

nebulizer

a device that delivers medication via a mist

118

tracheotomy

artificial opening of the trachea

119

septoplasty

surgical repair of the nasal septum

120

tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

excise inflammed organs

121

adenotome

instrument used to cut the adenoids

122

auscultation

breathing sounds

123

stethoscope

a way to listen to breathing sounds

124

percussion

tapping of the body with the fingertips to determine the size, borders and density of the internal organs by the sound obtained

125

sputum culture

respiratory mucus secretion

126

bronchograms

radiographic images of the bronchi

127

arterial blood gases

measuring blood gases in the arterial blood

128

chest x ray

chest radiograph

129

ventilation/perfusion scanning

lung scanning, the injection or inhalation of radioactive material to study its distribution in the lung

130

acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain

chest radiographs and examination of sputum

131

mantoux skin test

can indicate exposure to TB. intradermal test

132

spirometry

measure air capacity of the lungs during breathing

133

spirometer

instrument that measures breathing

134

-spir/o

breathing

135

-metry

measure

136

peak flow meter

portable instrument used to measure how fast air can be pushed out of the lungs

137

oximetry

measure the amount of oxygen in the blood using a device attached to the fingertip

138

bronchodialator

relax muscles of the bronchioles. expanding airway diameter and aid in clearing the mucous

139

bronchoconstrictor

agen that narrows the bronchi

140

bronchoscopy

a bronchoalveolar examination with a flexible, lighted fiberoptic tube

141

thoracotomy

an incision of the chest

142

video-assisted thorascopy

thoracoscope and video for and endoscopic procedure

143

lobectomy or pneumonectomy

surgery, excising a part of the lung

144

atelectasis

incomplete expansion of alveoli

145

aspirate

withdrawing or suctioning fluid and foreign material from the respiratory tract