MedTerm - module 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MedTerm - module 15 Deck (120):
1

encephal/o

brain

2

myel/o

spinal cord

3

glial cells

glia
neuroglia

4

gli/o

gluey substance

5

radicul/o

nerve root

6

radic/o

nerve root

7

rhiz/o

nerve root

8

neuron

nerve cell

9

dendrite

projections from the cell body

10

myelin sheath

covers the axon of many nerves

11

axon

thread like extension

12

gangli/o

ganglion

13

ganglion/o

ganglion

14

afferent

sensory

15

efferent

motor

16

synapse

point of functiuonal contact between neurons or between a neuron and an effector organ

17

impulse conduction

receptors of our sensory neurons detect a change in the environment

18

impulse

electrical disturbance

19

brain

one of the largest organs in the body

20

cranium

brain is encased within it

21

mening/o

meninges

22

meningi/o

meninges

23

dur/o

dura mater

24

arachnoid

loosely attached web-like covering

25

pia mater

delicate, inner layer,
rich supply of blood vessels that nourish the nervous tissue

26

cerebr/o

cerebrum

27

cerebell/o

cerebrellum

28

brainstem divisions

mid brain
pons
medulla

29

cerebrum

largest most upper section of the brain

30

sulcus

shallow depression on the surface of an organ

31

frontal lobe

largest lobe

32

temporal lobe

lateral region

33

parietal lobe

lies behind frontal and above temporal

34

occipital lobe

small pyramid-shaped area at the posterior of the cerebrum

35

cerebellum

under the cerebrum
second larges

36

medull/o

medulla oblongata

37

pont/o

pons

38

thalm/o

thalamus

39

ventricle

fluid filled cavities of the brain

40

CSF

within the ventricles and surrounds the brain and spinal cord

41

meningocele

saclike hernial protrusion of either the cerebral or spinal meninges through a bony defect in the skull of spinal cord

42

-cele

hernia

43

meningomyelocele

part of the spinal cord, meninges, and CSF protrude through a congenital defect in the verebral arch

44

hydrocephalus

congenital or acquired condition characterized by dilatioin of the cerebral ventricles accompanied by an accumulation of CSF in the skull

45

duritis

inflammation of the dura mater

46

cerebellitus

inflammation of the cerebellum

47

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

48

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

49

radiculitis

inflammation of a nerve root

50

polyneuritis

inflammation of many nerves

51

meningitis

inflammatory condition that affects the brain and spinal cord
acute inflammation of the pia and arachnoid mater

52

herpes zoster/shingles

infections disorder that affects the peripheral nerves

53

neuralgia

condition of severe pain

54

hyperesthesia

adnormal condition of increased sensativity, painful reaction to normal painless touch stimuli

55

esthesi/o

sensory perceptions/sensations

56

-esthesia

sensory perceptions/sensations

57

sciatica

inflammation of a specific nerve - the sciatic nerve

58

reye syndrome

may follow an acute viral infection
acute encephalopathy combined with fatty infiltation of internal organs

59

neuroma

tumor composed of nerve cells
benign neoplasm

60

glioma

tumor formed by neuroglia

61

glioblastoma multiforme

immatur neuroglia
most malignant rapidly gwowing form of glioma

62

concussion

injury to the brain cause by minor or major head trauma

63

cephalalgia

head pain, vertigo, unconsciousness

64

coma

extended perior of unconsciousness

65

transient ischemic attack

temporary neurologic disturbances

66

cerebrovascular accident

stroke
brain attack
interruption in normal supply of blood to the brain

67

ischemia

insufficient blood ini a body part

68

thrombosis

blood clot

69

thrombus

blood clot attached to the interior wall of a blood vessel

70

embolism

movement of a clot ouside the brain, through the blood stream to neurovasculature

71

hemorrage

profuse flow of blood within the brain from a ruptured cerebral blood vessel

72

aneurysm

dilation of a weakend wall of an artery, vein or heart

73

hemiplegia

paralysis of one side of the body

74

paraplegia

paralysis of the legs and lower portion of the body

75

quadriplegia and tetraplegia

paralysis of all 4 limbs

76

hemiparesis and

slight paralysis affecting half of the body

77

monoparesis

slight paralysis of one limb

78

-paresis

paralysis

79

aphasia

more severe form of impaired speech

80

dysphagia

speech impairment

81

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

rare degenerative disorder of the nervous system
degeneration and scarring of the motor neurons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord

82

multiple sclerosis

progressive disorder in which there is destruction of the myelin sheath
myeline sheath destroyed and replaced by scar tissue

83

parasthesia

numbness/tingling

84

huntingtons disease

deficiency of specific neurotransmitters in the midbrain

85

cerebral palsy

disorder of movement or muscle control

86

bell's palsy

paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve, nerve responsible for facial movement and the sensation of taste

87

Parkinson's disease

loss of neurons in the midbrain and inadequate production of dipamine

88

gait

style of walking

89

seizure

abnormal discharge of electrical activity from the nerve cells of the cerebrum

90

covulsion

uncontrollable muscle contraction

91

aura

unusual sensations

92

syncope

fainting

93

psychopath

disease of the mind

94

neurosis

emotional disorder characterized by anxiety and ineffective coping ability

95

psychosis

severe mental disturbance in which the ability to recognize reality and to interact with ones surroundings in defective or lost

96

psychiatry

branch of medicine that seeks to understand and describe human behavior and to treat impaired mental and or emotional functioning

97

psychiatrist

medical doctors who are trained to recognize, diagnose treat and prevent mental disorders

98

iatr/o

treatment, physician

99

iatrist

specialist, physician

100

iatry

treatment/specialty

101

psychology

study of the mental process and behavior

102

psych/o

mind

103

psychologist

ph/d in psychology

104

psychogenic

originating in the mind

105

psychosomatic

relationship of the mind and the body

106

somato form disorders

physical illness with no organic cause

107

electroencephalogram

detect abnormal electrical discharges from the brain

108

electoroencephalography

locate a specific area from which they originate

109

electroencephalograph

instrument used to record the impulses from the brain

110

evoked potential studies

measures changes and responses in brain waves using visual, auditory or somatosensory stimuli

111

computed tomography of the brain

detailed cross sections of brain tissue

112

MRI

magnetic waves to create an image of the brain

113

cerebral angiography

contrast dye to visualize the brains vascular system radiographically

114

positron emission tomography

nuclear medicine imaging technique using radioactive substance to produce sectional images of the brian to examine chemical activity and blood flow within the brain

115

CSF shunt

surgical intervention to relieve presure on the brain by inserting a tube

116

stereotaxic radiosurgery

focused beam of radiation to destroy the abnormal growth

117

neurotomy

incision into a nerve

118

radiculotomy

incision into a nerve root

119

neuroplasty

surgical repair of a nerve

120

neurorrhaphy

suture of a nerve