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Flashcards in Mental Health Deck (37)
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1

Defining mental health

Extreme differences or difficulties in the way a person thinks, observes the world and expresses feelings. These can either be brief or occur over a long time. They can cause difficulties in a persons ability to care for themselves, to have relationships, make decisions, work or have any leisure activity.

2

Facts and figures

1 in 6 adults in britain have severe mental health problems at any one time.

1 in 4 are treated by their GP or seek their own help.

About 2% have severe and enduring mental illness.

1 in 10 new mothers have post-natal depression

1 in 10 people will experience clinical depression at some point in their lives

3.4% of men and 8% of women are affected by phobias (agoraphobia most common)

1 in 200 develop mania in their lifetime

3

Mental illness is misunderstood

suffers face prejudice

4

Mental illness is not something that purely requires medical treatment

nor is it the persons fault that they have developed it

5

High risk factors for developing mental health issues in London

Unemployment and Social isolation.
Population of 15-30yr olds (highest risk of psychosis)
Variation in wealth and poverty
Ill health and housing problems
Many different ethnic groups

6

Categories of mental illness

Neurosis
Psychosis
Organic
Personality Disorders

7

Neurosis

A disorder in which anxiety or emotional symptoms are prominent.

The sufferer often has insight into their illness, or has potential to have insight

Main types: Pathological anxiety, Clinical depression, Phobias, Obsessions/Compulsions

8

Pathological Anxiety - definition

is a response to an event which is:
Disproportionate to the severity of stress normally expected.

Continues for an excessive period of time after the stressor has gone

Occurs in the absence of an external stressor

9

Pathological Anxiety - signs and symptoms

Persistent anxiety
Disturbed sleeping pattern
Tension leading to aches and pains
Muscular tremor
restlessness
Dry mouth
Autonomic over-activity (sweating, tachycardia, epigastric disturbances)

10

Clinical Depression two main types

Reactive
Endogenous

11

Reactive Clinical Depression - definition

Usually attributed to a specific event, such as bereavement, major life event or other traumatic/stressful experience.

12

Endogenous Clinical Depression - definition

The person may have frequent prolonged episodes, with no apparent cause.

13

Depression - signs and symptoms

Persistent low mood, reduced energy, pessimism
Sleep disturbance, poor concentration
Reduced appetite, weight loss
Reduced libido, loss of enjoyment
Feeling of worthlessness/guilt
General loss of normal function
Risk of self-harm or suicide in sever cases

14

Depression - treatment

Psychological treatments are often used in conjunction with anti-depressant medication

15

Phobias - definition

A persistent, abnormal fear of an object or situation (sometimes referred to as an irrational fear)

16

Agoraphobia

fear of crowds

17

Claustrophobia

fear of confined spaces

18

Pyrophobia

fear of fire

19

Phobias - signs and symptoms

Recurrent episodes of acute distress
Mental confusion
Sweating
Palpitations
Deep and rapid breathing, which may lead to hyperventilation

20

Obsession/Compulsion - definition

A desire to carry out repetitive actions (compulsion) in response to thoughts that constantly occupy the conscious mind (obsession)

Sufferer may have rituals that become part of everyday life

People with extreme cases of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' may spend hours washing or become unable to leave the house because of their need to perform rituals

21

Psychosis - Definition

A process in which the suffers experiences and reasoning do not reflect reality.

A person suffering from psychotic illness may lack insight into their illness and may appear to have lost touch with reality

22

Schizophrenia - definition

A severe mental disorder (or group of disorders) characterised by a disintegration of thought and perception process, contact with reality and emotional responsiveness.

May be acute or chronic and fluctuate in severity.

Affects 1% of the population

Onset: mid to late teens in men, slightly later in women

Cause is unclear

23

Schizophrenia - signs and symptoms

Involves disorders of thought and also include disorders of perception.

Delusions: Paranoid, Grandiose, Persecution

Hallucinations: Auditory, Tactile, Visual, Olfactory (smell), Taste.

24

Affective mood disorders - definition

Affective disorders can be unipolar (mania) or bipolar (manic depression), neurotic or psychotic, mild or severe.

25

Mania - definition

A condition characterised by episodes of boundless energy, a feeling of euphoria and of the person being very successful.

26

Mania - signs and symptoms

Elevated mood, talkative, optimistic (may be unrealistic)
Sleep disturbance
Flight of ideas, decreased attention span
Dis-inhibited (often sexually)
May have delusions of grandeur

27

Bipolar Disorder - signs and symptoms

Severe/intense mood swings from very low to very high. Happening within hours or can take days/months.
Suicidal.
May be accompanied by delusions/hallucinations or thought disorder.
in-between episodes the person is usually able to maintain a normal lifestyle.

28

Bipolar Disorder - Causes

It seems that people with bipolar disorder have a chemical brain imbalance and onset often follows periods of stress.

29

Bipolar Disorder - Treatments

Anti-psychotic medication
Antidepressant medication
Psychotherapy
Electro-convulsive therapy

30

Electro-convulsive therapy

A controversial medical intervention used in the treatment of depression.
An epileptic fit is induced after short electric shock is passed across the brain by placing electrodes on the temple and forehead.
May be used after other methods of treatment have been unsuccessful in life threatening depression.
Used in conjunction with anti-depressant medication.

31

Organic Mental Illness: Dementia - definition

Dementia is a progressive and irreversible disease of the brain.

32

Several different types of illness are grouped under the name dementia, such as:

Alzheimers disease
Huntingdon's disease
Pick's disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

33

Organic Mental Illness: Dementia - signs and symptoms

Confusion
Amnesia
Confabulation (the invention of circumstances about a past event, often used to disguise an inability to remember)
Reversed sleep pattern
Hallucinations

34

Organic Mental Illness: Dementia - management

Be prepared for irrational behaviour
Be patient
Consider patient dignity
Consider family cares etc

35

Personality Disorders - definition

Deeply ingrained maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaviour, generally recognisable in adolescence and continuing throughout adult life, though often fading by middle/old age.
Extreme/significant deviation from the way a person in a given culture perceives, thinks, feels and relates to others.
10% of the general adult population have a diagnosable PD; in 4% of cases this is severe.

36

Personality Disorder - Causes

The causes of PD are rooted in childhood experience. Most people will have experienced some of the following:
Abuse - physical, psychological and/or sexual
Chaotic and crisis-ridden background
Insecure attachments and/or traumatic Abandonment
Autonomy discouraged
Dependency fostered

37

Personality Disorder - management problems

Mistrust of professionals
Unrealistic expectations and inappropriate demands
Acting out behaviours
High sensitivity to abandonment
Tendency to seduce workers into offering more than is realistic