Flashcards in Mental Health Deck (37)
Defining mental health
Extreme differences or difficulties in the way a person thinks, observes the world and expresses feelings. These can either be brief or occur over a long time. They can cause difficulties in a persons ability to care for themselves, to have relationships, make decisions, work or have any leisure activity.
Facts and figures
1 in 6 adults in britain have severe mental health problems at any one time.
1 in 4 are treated by their GP or seek their own help.
About 2% have severe and enduring mental illness.
1 in 10 new mothers have post-natal depression
1 in 10 people will experience clinical depression at some point in their lives
3.4% of men and 8% of women are affected by phobias (agoraphobia most common)
1 in 200 develop mania in their lifetime
Mental illness is misunderstood
suffers face prejudice
Mental illness is not something that purely requires medical treatment
nor is it the persons fault that they have developed it
High risk factors for developing mental health issues in London
Unemployment and Social isolation.
Population of 15-30yr olds (highest risk of psychosis)
Variation in wealth and poverty
Ill health and housing problems
Many different ethnic groups
Categories of mental illness
A disorder in which anxiety or emotional symptoms are prominent.
The sufferer often has insight into their illness, or has potential to have insight
Main types: Pathological anxiety, Clinical depression, Phobias, Obsessions/Compulsions
Pathological Anxiety - definition
is a response to an event which is:
Disproportionate to the severity of stress normally expected.
Continues for an excessive period of time after the stressor has gone
Occurs in the absence of an external stressor
Pathological Anxiety - signs and symptoms
Disturbed sleeping pattern
Tension leading to aches and pains
Autonomic over-activity (sweating, tachycardia, epigastric disturbances)
Clinical Depression two main types
Reactive Clinical Depression - definition
Usually attributed to a specific event, such as bereavement, major life event or other traumatic/stressful experience.
Endogenous Clinical Depression - definition
The person may have frequent prolonged episodes, with no apparent cause.
Depression - signs and symptoms
Persistent low mood, reduced energy, pessimism
Sleep disturbance, poor concentration
Reduced appetite, weight loss
Reduced libido, loss of enjoyment
Feeling of worthlessness/guilt
General loss of normal function
Risk of self-harm or suicide in sever cases
Depression - treatment
Psychological treatments are often used in conjunction with anti-depressant medication
Phobias - definition
A persistent, abnormal fear of an object or situation (sometimes referred to as an irrational fear)
fear of crowds
fear of confined spaces
fear of fire
Phobias - signs and symptoms
Recurrent episodes of acute distress
Deep and rapid breathing, which may lead to hyperventilation
Obsession/Compulsion - definition
A desire to carry out repetitive actions (compulsion) in response to thoughts that constantly occupy the conscious mind (obsession)
Sufferer may have rituals that become part of everyday life
People with extreme cases of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' may spend hours washing or become unable to leave the house because of their need to perform rituals
Psychosis - Definition
A process in which the suffers experiences and reasoning do not reflect reality.
A person suffering from psychotic illness may lack insight into their illness and may appear to have lost touch with reality
Schizophrenia - definition
A severe mental disorder (or group of disorders) characterised by a disintegration of thought and perception process, contact with reality and emotional responsiveness.
May be acute or chronic and fluctuate in severity.
Affects 1% of the population
Onset: mid to late teens in men, slightly later in women
Cause is unclear
Schizophrenia - signs and symptoms
Involves disorders of thought and also include disorders of perception.
Delusions: Paranoid, Grandiose, Persecution
Hallucinations: Auditory, Tactile, Visual, Olfactory (smell), Taste.
Affective mood disorders - definition
Affective disorders can be unipolar (mania) or bipolar (manic depression), neurotic or psychotic, mild or severe.
Mania - definition
A condition characterised by episodes of boundless energy, a feeling of euphoria and of the person being very successful.
Mania - signs and symptoms
Elevated mood, talkative, optimistic (may be unrealistic)
Flight of ideas, decreased attention span
Dis-inhibited (often sexually)
May have delusions of grandeur
Bipolar Disorder - signs and symptoms
Severe/intense mood swings from very low to very high. Happening within hours or can take days/months.
May be accompanied by delusions/hallucinations or thought disorder.
in-between episodes the person is usually able to maintain a normal lifestyle.
Bipolar Disorder - Causes
It seems that people with bipolar disorder have a chemical brain imbalance and onset often follows periods of stress.
Bipolar Disorder - Treatments
A controversial medical intervention used in the treatment of depression.
An epileptic fit is induced after short electric shock is passed across the brain by placing electrodes on the temple and forehead.
May be used after other methods of treatment have been unsuccessful in life threatening depression.
Used in conjunction with anti-depressant medication.
Organic Mental Illness: Dementia - definition
Dementia is a progressive and irreversible disease of the brain.
Several different types of illness are grouped under the name dementia, such as:
Organic Mental Illness: Dementia - signs and symptoms
Confabulation (the invention of circumstances about a past event, often used to disguise an inability to remember)
Reversed sleep pattern
Organic Mental Illness: Dementia - management
Be prepared for irrational behaviour
Consider patient dignity
Consider family cares etc
Personality Disorders - definition
Deeply ingrained maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaviour, generally recognisable in adolescence and continuing throughout adult life, though often fading by middle/old age.
Extreme/significant deviation from the way a person in a given culture perceives, thinks, feels and relates to others.
10% of the general adult population have a diagnosable PD; in 4% of cases this is severe.
Personality Disorder - Causes
The causes of PD are rooted in childhood experience. Most people will have experienced some of the following:
Abuse - physical, psychological and/or sexual
Chaotic and crisis-ridden background
Insecure attachments and/or traumatic Abandonment