Flashcards in Oxygen Equipment & Oxygen Therapy Deck (44)
Why do we need Oxygen (O2)?
Its essential for life. It combines chemically with glucose (Krebs Cycle) to provide energy for the metabolic processes of the body.
Inadequate Oxygen tension at cellular level
Characteristics of Hypoxia
An abnormal deficiency in the concentration of O2 in arterial blood
Characteristics of Hypoxaemia
Cheyne–Stokes respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnoea.
Greater then normal CO2 in the blood
O2 Implication in Practice
O2 is a medication and should be treated as such..
Only prescribed & administered to those with clinical need.
Oxygen therapy should be Titrated to achieve normal saturation values in healthy adults(94/98%)
O2 is treatment for...
...Hypoxaemia and not breathlessness
By increasing the O2 content within the lungs
Haemoglobin is forced to carry more O2. Reversing the effects of Hypoxia on the brain, heart and other vital organs.
deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues
O2 is stored in cylinders on ambulances.
In UK O2 cylinders are clearly marked with 'Oxygen' or 'O2' and charged at 2000psi.
Must be maintained in good working order.
Two sizes of O2 cylinder
CD = 460L
HX = 2300L
How long does a cylinder last?
Should be changed when a 1/4 full.
Divide capacity of cylinder by flow rate.
(amount in cylinder - 1/4) / (flow rate)
O2 use CAUTIONS
Combustible materials ignite easier and burn fiercer in the presence of pure O2.
Oil, Grease, Sparks, Flames or any other type of ignition source may also cause and explosion if it comes into contact with O2 equipment.
Health & Safety (1 of 4)
Cylinders must be stored in well ventilated positions in special areas or cupboards provided.
Full and empty cylinders should be kept separate.
The storage area must not be used for any other purpose.
Cylinders should be properly supported off the floor.
Health & Safety (2 of 4)
Cylinders should not be allowed to get rusty, dirty, be repainted or have their markings obscured.
Cylinders must not be stored near stocks of combustible and or flammable materials.
warning sings prohibiting smoking or naked lights must be visible.
Adequate access must be provided and maintained to and from storage area.
Health & Safety (3 of 4)
No smoking when using O2
Do not use in the presence of naked flames
Exercise care when using O2 in presence of machinery or equipment which can create sparks.
Oil or grease must not come into contact with the outlet, valves or associated equipment due to risk of explosion.
Health & Safety (4 of 4)
Newly charged cylinders must have a securely fixed seal on outlet.
The outlet face must not be damaged.
Avoid dropping or rolling cylinders along ground when moving them.
Avoid excessive force when turning the valve key or when connecting and apparatus.
These are attached to the cylinders to reduce the pressure form 2000psi to around 60psi.
They incorporate a contents gauge and flow meter, attached directly or at the end of piping system, to assist in varying the flow rate of oxygen being delivered to the patient.
Free flow O2 therapy
Spinning ball flow-meter - on all vehicles
O-15 Litres per minute
Variable % depending on mask used
Non Re-Breather Masks
These masks can be used on all patients who require high concentrations of O2 due to trauma.
There are 2 sizes: Adult & Paediatric
These masks are to be used with a high flow rate of 15 Litres per minute to deliver 100% O2 to the patient.
Ensure that the reservoir bag is inflated prior to use.
These masks are for single patient use and are disposable.
Critical Illnesses requiring high levels of supplemental Oxygen (non re-breather 100%)
Major Pulmonary Haemorrhage
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Critical Illnesses requiring high levels of supplemental Oxygen - General Principles
Initial is reservoir bag at 15 L/min
Once stable reduce O2 to target saturation of 94-98%
Patients with COPD who develop critical illness should receive the same initial saturation targets but will need assessment and further controlled O2 therapy.
Nasal Cannulae, Venturi 28% & Tracheostomy
Designed to deliver low to medium flow O2 concentrations.
1 L/min = 24%
2 L/min = 28%
4 L/min = 36%
8 L/min = 52%
Venturi face mask
4 L/min = 28%
flow rate = 10 L/min
Serious illnesses requiring moderate levels of supplemental O2 if the patient is hypoxic
Acute Hypoxaemia - as yet undiagnosed
Acute Asthma, pneumonia, Ca lung
Post operative breathlessness
Acute heart failure
Pleural effusions (fluid in pleural space)
Pneumothorax (air in pleural space)
Deterioration of lung fibrosis or other interstitial disease.
Sickle cell crisis