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Flashcards in Oxygen Equipment & Oxygen Therapy Deck (44)
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1

Why do we need Oxygen (O2)?

Its essential for life. It combines chemically with glucose (Krebs Cycle) to provide energy for the metabolic processes of the body.

2

Hypoxia

Inadequate Oxygen tension at cellular level

3

Characteristics of Hypoxia

Tachycardia
Hypertension
Peripheral vaso-constriction
Dizziness
Mental confusion

4

Hypoxaemia

An abnormal deficiency in the concentration of O2 in arterial blood

5

Characteristics of Hypoxaemia

Cyanosis
Restlessness
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
Apnoea
Hypertension
Tachycardia

6

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

Cheyne–Stokes respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnoea.

7

Hypercarbia

Greater then normal CO2 in the blood

8

O2 Implication in Practice

O2 is a medication and should be treated as such..
Only prescribed & administered to those with clinical need.

Oxygen therapy should be Titrated to achieve normal saturation values in healthy adults(94/98%)

9

O2 is treatment for...

...Hypoxaemia and not breathlessness

10

By increasing the O2 content within the lungs

Haemoglobin is forced to carry more O2. Reversing the effects of Hypoxia on the brain, heart and other vital organs.

11

Hypoxia

deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues

12

Oxygen cylinders

O2 is stored in cylinders on ambulances.
In UK O2 cylinders are clearly marked with 'Oxygen' or 'O2' and charged at 2000psi.
Must be maintained in good working order.

13

Two sizes of O2 cylinder

CD = 460L
HX = 2300L

14

How long does a cylinder last?

Should be changed when a 1/4 full.
Divide capacity of cylinder by flow rate.
(amount in cylinder - 1/4) / (flow rate)

15

O2 use CAUTIONS

Combustible materials ignite easier and burn fiercer in the presence of pure O2.

Oil, Grease, Sparks, Flames or any other type of ignition source may also cause and explosion if it comes into contact with O2 equipment.

16

Health & Safety (1 of 4)

Cylinders must be stored in well ventilated positions in special areas or cupboards provided.

Full and empty cylinders should be kept separate.
The storage area must not be used for any other purpose.

Cylinders should be properly supported off the floor.

17

Health & Safety (2 of 4)

Cylinders should not be allowed to get rusty, dirty, be repainted or have their markings obscured.

Cylinders must not be stored near stocks of combustible and or flammable materials.

warning sings prohibiting smoking or naked lights must be visible.

Adequate access must be provided and maintained to and from storage area.

18

Health & Safety (3 of 4)

No smoking when using O2

Do not use in the presence of naked flames

Exercise care when using O2 in presence of machinery or equipment which can create sparks.

Oil or grease must not come into contact with the outlet, valves or associated equipment due to risk of explosion.

19

Health & Safety (4 of 4)

Newly charged cylinders must have a securely fixed seal on outlet.

The outlet face must not be damaged.

Avoid dropping or rolling cylinders along ground when moving them.

Avoid excessive force when turning the valve key or when connecting and apparatus.

20

Regulators

These are attached to the cylinders to reduce the pressure form 2000psi to around 60psi.

They incorporate a contents gauge and flow meter, attached directly or at the end of piping system, to assist in varying the flow rate of oxygen being delivered to the patient.

21

Free flow O2 therapy

Spinning ball flow-meter - on all vehicles

O-15 Litres per minute

Variable % depending on mask used

22

Non Re-Breather Masks

These masks can be used on all patients who require high concentrations of O2 due to trauma.

There are 2 sizes: Adult & Paediatric

These masks are to be used with a high flow rate of 15 Litres per minute to deliver 100% O2 to the patient.

Ensure that the reservoir bag is inflated prior to use.

These masks are for single patient use and are disposable.

23

Critical Illnesses requiring high levels of supplemental Oxygen (non re-breather 100%)

Shock
Sepsis
Major Trauma
Near-drowning
Anaphylaxis
Major Pulmonary Haemorrhage
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

24

Critical Illnesses requiring high levels of supplemental Oxygen - General Principles

Initial is reservoir bag at 15 L/min

Once stable reduce O2 to target saturation of 94-98%

Patients with COPD who develop critical illness should receive the same initial saturation targets but will need assessment and further controlled O2 therapy.

25

Nasal Cannulae, Venturi 28% & Tracheostomy

Designed to deliver low to medium flow O2 concentrations.

26

Nasal Cannula

1 L/min = 24%
2 L/min = 28%
4 L/min = 36%
8 L/min = 52%

27

Venturi face mask

4 L/min = 28%

28

Tracheostomy

flow rate = 10 L/min

29

Serious illnesses requiring moderate levels of supplemental O2 if the patient is hypoxic

Acute Hypoxaemia - as yet undiagnosed
Acute Asthma, pneumonia, Ca lung
Post operative breathlessness
Acute heart failure
PE
Pleural effusions (fluid in pleural space)
Pneumothorax (air in pleural space)
Deterioration of lung fibrosis or other interstitial disease.
Severe anaemia
Sickle cell crisis

30

Administration and Dosage

The O2 concentration delivered to the patient is determined by the choice of mask and flow rate.

It is important to administer the correct oxygen concentration & flow rate for the patients condition.